Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]



Wilfried Krüger的变革管理冰山(Change Management Iceberg)理论形象地论证了组织变革的关键—— 应对变革障碍。


根据Kruger的研究,大多数变革管理者只关注变革冰山的顶层(水面以上部分), 即变革所牵涉的成本、质量和时间等问题(问题管理)。



  • 感知与信仰管理,
  • 权力与政治管理。



     - 对待“坚硬的”挑战(如信息系统、组织流程),需要放开手脚大刀阔斧地废旧换新

     - 对待“绵软的”挑战(如价值、情绪、能力),应对方法则复杂得多


     -革命性的、彻底的变革,如Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]



  • 变革的极力反对者,不仅对变革持反对态度,而且付诸行动阻挠变革,以免变革伤害到其个人利益。 需要通过感知与信仰管理,尽可能地改变他们对待改革的思想认识。
  • 变革的积极促进者,不仅对变革持普遍的欢迎态度,而且从个人出发积极推动变革,以期通过变革实现个人的价值利益。 他们既利用变革,就必然支持变革。
  • 变革的暗藏反对者,尽管表面上看似支持变革,事实上他们是对变革基本上持反对态度的机会主义者。 对待他们,除了感知与信仰管理之外,还需要辅以信息沟通(问题管理),改变他们的态度。
  • 变革的潜在促进者,对待变革基本上持赞成态度,但由于各种原因对变革又显得信心不足。 这种情况下,就需要权利与政治管理。


Krüger强调,变革管理是一项长期的任务和挑战, 冰山顶层的问题管理,只有与冰山底层管理保持一致,才有可能达到一定的效果。 冰山底层正是变革管理的基础,它反映出来的就是,人际行为维度和文化标准维度的权力与政治管理以及感知与信仰管理。


文章: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

参考书: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

参考书: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -

变更管理(冰山) 小组

小组 (10名成员)



🔥 冰山还是在融化. 早晚他们还是无家可归.
冰山还是在融化. 早晚他们还是无家可归. 他们发现了问题, 但并没有解决问题. 这次变革 (...)
我们先来看这个图。如果,变革从三角形与四方形中间开始呢!!!在一个企业里面。一定 (...)
Reasons and Motives to Resist Change
I'm trying to collect a list of all motives for resistance to change by employees. Henk Kleijn and Fred Rorink in their (...)
How to Make Employees LOVE Change?
Most of the discussions in this particular forum on the change iceberg are about RESISTANCE to change. My question is ho (...)
Hidden Resistance to Change
It is very important to recognize that the most powerful resistance does NOT come from those who openly disagree with yo (...)
Bad Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management miserably? What went wrong and why? Thanks! (...)
Transparancy Needed in Change Management
I think everyone who is involved in change processes needs to practice "transparency" in a way to abstain from misunders (...)
What Leadership Style Reduces Resistance?
The importance of employees being committed to change cannot be underestimated nowadays, since more and more organizatio (...)
Is it Possible to Manage Change If the Right Approaches Are NOT Used?
Hi all, I've been focussing on this question for a week now and I find that unless if the right approaches, like that of (...)
Dealing with Change is Not Always Problematic
I think there's a degree of over complexity here. In many instances humans do cope well with change, most usually when s (...)
Engage the Opponents
When you engage the "tough nuts" on your team and get them involved from the outset, your chance of successfully impleme (...)
Types of Change and Corresponding Resistance Levels
Change may be a evolved or evolutionary change. Or a revolutionary, or forced, top down or bottom up. Technology or mark (...)
Characteristics of Organizations That are Open to Change
To what extent should an organisation be open to regular change management initiatives. Are certain types of organisatio (...)
Avoiding Resistance to Change
There will always be change from time to time and management and staff apprehension will always be part of the issues to (...)
Create Involvement and Communicate the Strategic Need to Change
Changes in general are difficult and, in most cases, we live them more like a threat than an opportunity. As we all know (...)
Dealing with Toxic Employees
In modern society and organizations, very negative, destructive, "toxic" team members may damage an entire organization (...)
Good Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management effectively? What are the key reasons for this (...)
Categories of People Involved in Change
Krueger takes cognizance of four types of major players involved or appear to be directly involved in change management (...)
Achieving Change at the Individual Level
It is a known fact that in order to have an effective change implementation at the organisation level you need change at (...)
Overcoming Resistance? The Rapid Results Method by Schaffer
I have recently come across the interesting "Rapid Results" method of implementing change by Robert H. Schaffer ('Rapid (...)
Human Factors in Change Management
An important part of change management is dealing with human factors --- reactions to implementation which for both indi (...)
Managing the Change Within Oneself
What about the change we manage within ourselves everyday, everytime? Can anyone please share any experience about how t (...)
Ethics in Change Management
What does one do when as a change agent, one realizes that what is being asked will finally be damaging to the growth or (...)
Communicating Change to Top Management
What are the different ways of communicating change to top management? (...)
Who Moved my Cheese?
The book 'WHO MOVED MY CHEESE' is a very good book for management student. Who Moved My Cheese was published in 1998. (...)
Why You should Embrace Change
Wildebeest that travel thousands of miles every year to get to water during the dry season will walk in a windy pattern (...)
Change is Most of the Times Selfish
The problem I find with change is that in most cases, it favors the organization more than the employees. (...)
Equilibrium of System
Managers should not forget that they are part of a system they work in. Even minor changes will have effects on how the (...)



🥇 The ADKAR model by Prosci
The ADKAR model by Prosci (1998) helps to deal with the people dimension of change. It can be used to: 1. Diagnose empl (...)
🥈 What are the Reasons for Change?
Why do we really need change in the first place? What are the sources / reasons for the need to change? (...)
🥉 What Punishment for Unwilling Employees?
My question is this: when an organization wants to bring change in the organization, we know that if employees are in fa (...)
6 Images of Managing Change (Palmer, Dunford and Akin)
Palmer, Dunford and Akin provide vision and direction for managers to think about their role in managing organizational (...)
My Way to Deal with Resistance to Change
I am a head teacher in a large secondary school in Scotland. Here the trade unions are very powerful and automatically r (...)
Automatic Defense Mechanisms to Change
What I think is that human beings are reluctant for change by nature. When there is a change taking place around themsel (...)
Managing Change is in the Essence of Management
If there are no needs to change, why do we need management? Managing change is in the essence of management. A daily rou (...)

Change Management (Iceberg)专家提示(英语)


I'll never use the term 'Resistance to Change' again

Resistance to Change is a Defensive Attitude... (...)

Addressing Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management (...)

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives (...)

Leadership Strategies for Change

Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change (...)

Understanding Why Resistance Occurs

Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important (...)

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change (...)

Role of Recruiting in Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment (...)

What Change Agents Should I Use?

Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management (...)

The Need to Communicate the REASONS for Change

Change Management (...)

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organizations Capacity for Change

Leading Change (...)

Critical Leadership Skills

Tackling the Six Stages of Concern (...)

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation (...)

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

Preparing Strategic Change (...)

The 7C Framework for Successful Personal and Professional Change

Personal Change, Professional Change, Personal Transition, Professional Transition, Embracing Change (...)

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

Communicating Strategic Change (...)



比较: Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  DICE Framework[DICE架构]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  MSP[成功管理计划]  |  PMMM[项目管理成熟度模型]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  | Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  RACI[RACI模型]

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