Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]



Wilfried Krüger的Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]解析。


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Wilfried Krüger的变革管理冰山(Change Management Iceberg)理论形象地论证了组织变革的关键—— 应对变革障碍。


根据Kruger的研究,大多数变革管理者只关注变革冰山的顶层(水面以上部分), 即变革所牵涉的成本、质量和时间等问题(问题管理)。



  • 感知与信仰管理,
  • 权力与政治管理。



     - 对待“坚硬的”挑战(如信息系统、组织流程),需要放开手脚大刀阔斧地废旧换新

     - 对待“绵软的”挑战(如价值、情绪、能力),应对方法则复杂得多


     -革命性的、彻底的变革,如Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]



  • 变革的极力反对者,不仅对变革持反对态度,而且付诸行动阻挠变革,以免变革伤害到其个人利益。 需要通过感知与信仰管理,尽可能地改变他们对待改革的思想认识。
  • 变革的积极促进者,不仅对变革持普遍的欢迎态度,而且从个人出发积极推动变革,以期通过变革实现个人的价值利益。 他们既利用变革,就必然支持变革。
  • 变革的暗藏反对者,尽管表面上看似支持变革,事实上他们是对变革基本上持反对态度的机会主义者。 对待他们,除了感知与信仰管理之外,还需要辅以信息沟通(问题管理),改变他们的态度。
  • 变革的潜在促进者,对待变革基本上持赞成态度,但由于各种原因对变革又显得信心不足。 这种情况下,就需要权利与政治管理。


Krüger强调,变革管理是一项长期的任务和挑战, 冰山顶层的问题管理,只有与冰山底层管理保持一致,才有可能达到一定的效果。 冰山底层正是变革管理的基础,它反映出来的就是,人际行为维度和文化标准维度的权力与政治管理以及感知与信仰管理。


文章: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

参考书: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

参考书: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -

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比较: Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  DICE Framework[DICE架构]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  MSP[成功管理计划]  |  PMMM[项目管理成熟度模型]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  | Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  RACI[RACI模型]

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