计划行为理论

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改变人的行为模式。 Icek Ajzen的Theory of Planned Behavior[TPB,计划行为理论]解析。 (‘85)


Icek Ajzen(1985,1991)提出的计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior,TPB)能够帮助我们理解人是如何改变自己的行为模式的。 TPB认为人的行为是经过深思熟虑的计划的结果。


TPB是AjzenFishbein(1975,1980)共同提出的理性行为理论(Theory of Reasoned ActionTRA的继承者, 因为Ajzen研究发现,人的行为并不是百分百地出于自愿,而是处在控制之下, 因此,他將TRA予以擴充,增加了一项对自我“行为控制认知”(Perceived Behavior Control)的新概念, 从而发展成为新的行为理论研究模式——计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB)。


计划行为理论的三项考量

根据TPB,人的行为模式受到三项内在因素影响:

  1. 个人行为态度(Behaviroal Beliefs。 个人对自己行为可能出现的结果的一种看法和观点。

  2. 主观性规范(Normative Beliefs。 对他人的标准化行为模式的主观性感知。

  3. 行为控制认知(Control Beliefs。 对于促进或阻碍行为效果的相关因素的认知。

Ajzen Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论] TPB当人们身处具体的工作环境或项目计划中,需要对行为做出改变时,以上三个方面的考量至关重要。


在三个考量的各自范畴内,行为态度的考量会使人产生对待行为的正面的或负面的态度,行为规范性的考量会使人感受到周遭的社会压力,行为控制因素的考量则会导致人的实际行为控制度的上升。 此三项因素的综合则构成了人的行为意向(Behavioral Intention)。 作为一般性的法则,如果个人行为态度和主观性规范是正向的、积极的,那么个人对该行为认定的实际控制就会愈多,采取该行为的意向将愈强。


过去行为的余效影响

2002年,Ajzen对过去行为对后继行为的余效影响(Residual Effects)进行了调查研究。 他得出结论:余效影响确实存在,但不能够由此得出习惯化行为(Habituation)的结论,如许多其他学者认为的那样。 有证据显示,当行为意向与具体行为和谐一致的时候,余效影响是微弱的。 而且,当行为意向非常强壮、个人预想现实可靠的时候,且已制定了执行行为意向的具体方案,余效影响将会消失。


旅游行业的一个研究项目证明,过去的旅行经验对未来旅游活动的影响,只发生于外部环境保持相对稳定的时候。


运用: TPB帮助解释为什么充斥大量信息的广告战不灵验, 如此的广告宣传只能够提高消费者关于产品的知识,却无助于大幅度改变消费者行为。 只有那些致力于改变消费者态度和对对标准的感知,以及控制消费者购买行为变化的广告,才会产生较好的广告效果。


同样,在管理方面,那些将重点放在解释某某重要性上的项目(意在知识转变)也不可能取得成功, 相反,应该关注于员工的行为态度、主观性标准以及行为控制认知,使员工产生内在的变革意向。


参考书: Icek Ajzen, Martin Fishbein - Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior -


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