改变人的行为模式。 Icek Ajzen的Theory of Planned Behavior[TPB,计划行为理论]解析。 (‘85)

Icek Ajzen(1985,1991)提出的计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior,TPB)能够帮助我们理解人是如何改变自己的行为模式的。 TPB认为人的行为是经过深思熟虑的计划的结果。

TPB是AjzenFishbein(1975,1980)共同提出的理性行为理论(Theory of Reasoned ActionTRA的继承者, 因为Ajzen研究发现,人的行为并不是百分百地出于自愿,而是处在控制之下, 因此,他將TRA予以擴充,增加了一项对自我“行为控制认知”(Perceived Behavior Control)的新概念, 从而发展成为新的行为理论研究模式——计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB)。



  1. 个人行为态度(Behaviroal Beliefs。 个人对自己行为可能出现的结果的一种看法和观点。

  2. 主观性规范(Normative Beliefs。 对他人的标准化行为模式的主观性感知。

  3. 行为控制认知(Control Beliefs。 对于促进或阻碍行为效果的相关因素的认知。

Ajzen Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论] TPB当人们身处具体的工作环境或项目计划中,需要对行为做出改变时,以上三个方面的考量至关重要。

在三个考量的各自范畴内,行为态度的考量会使人产生对待行为的正面的或负面的态度,行为规范性的考量会使人感受到周遭的社会压力,行为控制因素的考量则会导致人的实际行为控制度的上升。 此三项因素的综合则构成了人的行为意向(Behavioral Intention)。 作为一般性的法则,如果个人行为态度和主观性规范是正向的、积极的,那么个人对该行为认定的实际控制就会愈多,采取该行为的意向将愈强。


2002年,Ajzen对过去行为对后继行为的余效影响(Residual Effects)进行了调查研究。 他得出结论:余效影响确实存在,但不能够由此得出习惯化行为(Habituation)的结论,如许多其他学者认为的那样。 有证据显示,当行为意向与具体行为和谐一致的时候,余效影响是微弱的。 而且,当行为意向非常强壮、个人预想现实可靠的时候,且已制定了执行行为意向的具体方案,余效影响将会消失。


运用: TPB帮助解释为什么充斥大量信息的广告战不灵验, 如此的广告宣传只能够提高消费者关于产品的知识,却无助于大幅度改变消费者行为。 只有那些致力于改变消费者态度和对对标准的感知,以及控制消费者购买行为变化的广告,才会产生较好的广告效果。

同样,在管理方面,那些将重点放在解释某某重要性上的项目(意在知识转变)也不可能取得成功, 相反,应该关注于员工的行为态度、主观性标准以及行为控制认知,使员工产生内在的变革意向。

参考书: Icek Ajzen, Martin Fishbein - Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior -

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比较: Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Six Change Approaches[六变革法]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Managing for Value[价值管理]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Framing[心理定格]  |  Attribution Theory[归因理论]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]

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