Three Levels of Culture[组织文化的三个层次]



Edgard Three Levels of Culture[组织文化的三个层次]定义组织文化的Schein文化无所不在,它包围着我们每一个人。 文化是深邃的、弥漫的、复杂的。

根据Edgar Schein,如果我们不能够将组织文化作为应对变革的首要资源的话,所谓的组织学习、组织发展、有规划的变革,等等将无从谈起。

而且,如果管理者对自己的组织文化无意识的话,他们将被动地为文化所左右。 文化最好能够为组织的每一个成员所理解,但是,对组织领导者来说,理解自己的组织文化则是必须的。

通过对组织文化要素三个层次的划分,Edgar Schein对什么是组织文化做出了精辟的解释。

什么是组织文化的三个层次? 释义


  1. 人工制品(Artifacts。 人工制品是那些外显的文化产品,能够看得见、听得见、摸得着(如制服),但却不易被理解。
  2. 信仰与价值(Espoused Values。 藏于人工制品之下的便是组织的“信仰与价值”,它们是组织的战略、目标和哲学。
  3. 基本隐性假设与价值(Basic Assumptions and Values。 组织文化的核心或精华是早已在人们头脑中生根的不被意识到的假设、价值、信仰、规范等,由于它们大部分出于一种无意识的层次,所以很难被观察到。 然而,正是由于它们的存在,我们才得以理解每一个具体组织事件为什么会以特定的形式发生。 这些基本隐性假设存在于人们的自然属性、人际关系与活动、现实与事实之中。

1992年,Edgar Schein在他的名著《组织文化与领导》 (Organizational Culture and Leadership)一书中,将组织文化定义为: “一种基本假设的模型──由特定群体文化在处理外部适应与内部聚合问题的过程中发明、发现或发展出来的──由于运作效果好而被认可,并传授给组织新成员以作为理解、思考和感受相关问题的正确方式。”

1996年,在更新的一本书中,Schein又将组织文化定义为: “一系列的内隐假设,有关一群人如何分享和决定他们的认知、思想、情感以及公开行为的程度。它藉由组织成员的共享历史和期望,以及他们之间的社会互动的产出所形成。”

Schein(1992)承认,即便进行更为严谨深入地研究,我们也只能就组织文化的某些成分得出一些结论, 我们不可能理解组织文化的全部。 就如何了解和把握组织文化,Schein推荐了如下方法: 类似于心理医生对待心理病人的重复的、临床的方法。 值得一说的是,Shein的这种组织文化的研究手段迥异于那些流行管理杂志鼓吹的各种时髦方法。

参考书: Edgard Schein - Organizational Culture and Leadership [中译本《组织文化与领导》,台湾五南文化事业机构,2005] -

组织文化的三个层次 小组

小组 (19名成员)



Will Artificial Intelligence Affect the Culture of your Organization?
We all know that employee involvement in the management (decision-making) of the company is helpful to form a good workp (...)
What is the X Factor That Can Make your Culture Great? Quiddity
The X factor that will really differentiate your culture is unique for each company. Some X factors that are often used (...)
How Does Globalization Impact your Organizational Culture?
Globalization has various cultural consequences. Robert Holton (2000) in his article "Globalization's Cultural Consequen (...)
Social Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Company Culture
There is a social impact of the Covid-19 pandemic as it requires social distancing and security. Employees are often req (...)


🥇 The Denison Culture Model
Caroline J. Fisher in Employment Relations Today, Summer 2000, in her article, "Like it or Not... Culture Matters" descr (...)
🥈 Three Levels of Culture by Sathe
Who actually developed the three levels of culture: is it Sathe (1985) or Schein (1992)? According to Sathe, the three (...)
🥉 WHEN to Develop a Company Culture?
Nowadays in our global world anybody has an opinion about what company culture means and why it's important. But in the (...)
Organisational Structure and Design Will (Always) Influence Organisation's Culture
I have been researching the topic and quite frankly can't find any contradicting theory or thesis stating otherwise, tha (...)
Innovative, Learning Organisations?
Corporate culture also influences organisational learning and innovation. An interesting opinion by Schein is that, beca (...)
How to Choose and Live the Right Values for an Organisation?
Values are being revisited in many organisations - yet few manage to select the right values and then anchor them in the (...)
Factors in Organizational Culture?
What main factors are making up or influencing the culture of an organization? (...)
Influence of External Environment on Organizational Culture
To what extend does the external environment influence the 3 levels of organizational culture? (...)
Organizational Behavior and Culture
It is very important to create an environment in a company for the employees to feel not stressed and be motivated. Comp (...)
A Culture of Voice for the Millennials Generation
Millennials are those typically born between 1980 and before 1995. They outnumber the Gen-X and Baby Boomer population i (...)
Five Steps to Guard Against Cultural Risk
A proper corporate culture can be a competitive advantage of a company and usually is considered a very important asset. (...)
Employee Culture and Organization Design
Organizations who designed themselves in accordance with their employee culture are more and more successful and long s (...)
The Influence of Organizational Culture and Intellectual Capital on the Management Accounting System as well as the Corporate Performance
The above research topic has been conducted among companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The is divide (...)
Write Down the Unwritten Rules of your Organization's Culture
According to Jocelyn Goldfein, "Culture is the behavior you reward and punish". In other words, behavior will shape cult (...)
Enrich your Culture with Process Theology
Your culture is your "Yellow Submarine". It reflects a natural consensus. Surface that consensus. Is your "Yellow Submar (...)
The Influence of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Culture on the Management Accounting System and Company Performance
- INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL includes human capital, innovation capital, process capital, structural capital, and other differ (...)
Three Levels of Culture Iceberg
We have used the concept of Schein's three levels in conjunction with the '' analogy; Behaviour - visible, changeable A (...)
How to Establish a Positive Organizational Culture?
I feel very strongly that a critical part of trying to develop a "positive" organizational culture centers around being (...)
The Distinction Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate
People tend to view these two concepts as the same and use them interchangeably. I believe that there is a difference be (...)
How can Organizational Culture Lead to Company Performance?
Sorensen (2000) found that if an organization maintains a strong culture by demonstrating a well integrated and effectiv (...)
Three Levels of Culture专家提示(英语)


Reasons for Shared Beliefs and a Homogeneous Corporate Culture

Why does Homogeneity Develop? (...)

Establishing an Organizational Culture of Perpetual Crisis

Corporate Culture Best Practice (...)

Strategies to Change Employee Habits, Hearts and Heads

Changing Organization Cultures (...)

Pitfalls and Best Practices in Culture Change

Changing Organizational Cultures, What to DO and what NOT (...)

Other Thinkers on Corporate Culture

Different Approaches (...)

Key Behaviors of Innovative Organizations

Innovation Management, Culture Change, Organizational Change, Innovative Culture, Organizational Culture (...)

Why is Changing an Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment (...)

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures (...)

Organodynamics: the 3 Laws at the Basis of Performance in Organizations

Strategic Performance Management, Leadership, Corporate Mission, Corporate Culture (...)

7 Mechanisms to Change Corporate Cultures

Change Management, Organizational Change, Culture Change (...)

The Importance of Culture in Organizational Performance

Organizational Culture, Corporate Culture, Employee Behavior, Organizational Performance (...)

PROs and CONs of a Strong Corporate Culture

Corporate Culture Change, Change Management, Organizational Change (...)


比较:  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Knowledge Management[知识管理] (Collison & Parcell)  |  Organizational Memory[组织记忆]  |  Organizational Learning[组织学习]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]

返回到分类主页: 变革与组织  |  伦理与责任  |  人力资源管理  |  领导力  |  战略与策略


Special Interest Group Leader





关于12manage | 广告服务 | 链接到我们/引用我们 | 隐私 | 建议 | 服务条款
© 2020 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.6 - 最后更新:20-9-2020。所有名称™它们的主人的。