Three Levels of Culture[组织文化的三个层次]
(Schein)

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定义组织文化。 Edgar Schein的Levels of Culture[文化层次]解析。 (‘92)

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Edgard Three Levels of Culture[组织文化的三个层次]定义组织文化的Schein文化无所不在,它包围着我们每一个人。 文化是深邃的、弥漫的、复杂的。


根据Edgar Schein,如果我们不能够将组织文化作为应对变革的首要资源的话,所谓的组织学习、组织发展、有规划的变革,等等将无从谈起。

而且,如果管理者对自己的组织文化无意识的话,他们将被动地为文化所左右。 文化最好能够为组织的每一个成员所理解,但是,对组织领导者来说,理解自己的组织文化则是必须的。


通过对组织文化要素三个层次的划分,Edgar Schein对什么是组织文化做出了精辟的解释。


什么是组织文化的三个层次? 释义

Schein将组织文化分为以下三个层次:

  1. 人工制品(Artifacts。 人工制品是那些外显的文化产品,能够看得见、听得见、摸得着(如制服),但却不易被理解。
  2. 信仰与价值(Espoused Values。 藏于人工制品之下的便是组织的“信仰与价值”,它们是组织的战略、目标和哲学。
  3. 基本隐性假设与价值(Basic Assumptions and Values。 组织文化的核心或精华是早已在人们头脑中生根的不被意识到的假设、价值、信仰、规范等,由于它们大部分出于一种无意识的层次,所以很难被观察到。 然而,正是由于它们的存在,我们才得以理解每一个具体组织事件为什么会以特定的形式发生。 这些基本隐性假设存在于人们的自然属性、人际关系与活动、现实与事实之中。

1992年,Edgar Schein在他的名著《组织文化与领导》 (Organizational Culture and Leadership)一书中,将组织文化定义为: “一种基本假设的模型──由特定群体文化在处理外部适应与内部聚合问题的过程中发明、发现或发展出来的──由于运作效果好而被认可,并传授给组织新成员以作为理解、思考和感受相关问题的正确方式。”


1996年,在更新的一本书中,Schein又将组织文化定义为: “一系列的内隐假设,有关一群人如何分享和决定他们的认知、思想、情感以及公开行为的程度。它藉由组织成员的共享历史和期望,以及他们之间的社会互动的产出所形成。”


Schein(1992)承认,即便进行更为严谨深入地研究,我们也只能就组织文化的某些成分得出一些结论, 我们不可能理解组织文化的全部。 就如何了解和把握组织文化,Schein推荐了如下方法: 类似于心理医生对待心理病人的重复的、临床的方法。 值得一说的是,Shein的这种组织文化的研究手段迥异于那些流行管理杂志鼓吹的各种时髦方法。
 

参考书: Edgard Schein - Organizational Culture and Leadership [中译本《组织文化与领导》,台湾五南文化事业机构,2005] -


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比较:  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Knowledge Management[知识管理] (Collison & Parcell)  |  Organizational Memory[组织记忆]  |  Organizational Learning[组织学习]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]


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