Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]

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总结

社会权力基础权力过程渗透于社会方方面面,不仅复杂,还常扮有伪装。 French和Raven的社会权力基础(Bases of Social Power)理论识别出五个(或六个)方面的社会权力基础(来源)。

  1. 奖赏权力Reward Power)。 这种权力基于给予正面有利结果,或去除负面不利结果所带来的力量。

  2. 强制权力(Coercive Power。 这种权力是指对违背旨意的人进行惩戒的力量。

  3. 法定权力(Legitimate Power。 这种权力是指通过选举或任命而担当一定职位所得到的行为力量,亦称组织权威(Organizational Authority规范权力(Normative Power。 比较: Organization Chart[组织结构图]

  4. 参照权力(Referent Power。 这种权力是由于成为别人学习参照榜样所拥有的力量。

  5. 专家权力(Expert Power。 这种权力来自于个人所拥有的专长、专门知识和特殊技能。

  6. 信息权力(Information Power 。 与5类似, 这种权力依赖于对某种他人必须的、重要信息的控制。

社会权力基础理论假定权力及其影响作用至少要卷入两个作用体, 并认为权力受体对于研究社会影响和权力现象更为有用。


French和Raven检阅了各种各样的权力后果,既有被权力所吸引的,也有对权力产生抵抗的。 吸引或抵抗都是权力受体对于权力作用体的情绪化反映。 他们总结到,权力基础不同,其产生的后果也不同。

例如,强制权力非常典型,它削弱吸引力,引起高度抵抗力。 而奖赏权力则会提高吸引力,并将抵抗力降到最低限度。


French和Raven还认为, 强制权力越合法(感觉而言),抵抗力就越薄弱,注意力也会随之减弱。


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A 7th Source of Power: Participative Power
Achieve participative power by having:
- Common goals
- Clear vision
- Constant communication
- Ever (...)
14
 
2条评论
Composition of Power Bases
I think several power bases can be required in one individual, and suggest to focus on the composition of all power base (...)
13
 
4条评论
How Leaders Influence Others? 6 Persuasion Principles
Influence refers to the power of an individual to impel another person to action by either intangible or indirect (...)
12
 
2条评论
With Power Comes Responsibility!
With real power comes responsibility. You need to exercise it with an objective in mind. Power without responsibility wi (...)
11
 
1条评论
Is Charisma a Source of Social Power?
What about personal power or call it charismatic power? Certain people can be powerful through their charisma, energy, s (...)
10
 
2条评论
Synergistic Power is the Strongest
All power is secondary to synergistic power.
The mathematics of synergistic power is this: 1 + 1 = 11!
There i (...)
10
 
Should See Power Differently...
The word "power" acts as deterrent for most of the employees to perform and leaves a negative and rebellious feeling in (...)
10
 
About Information Power
I personally believe that information power is the most influential form of power. All other powers especially legitimat (...)
10
 
1条评论
What is Power? Definitions
French and Raven detail varieties of social power, but what is 'power', is it Foucault's action that requires two consen (...)
8
 
2条评论
Mind Power - Power of Mind
Every one has power of mind, of which only around 17% is active. We need to activate the unconscious mind power to energ (...)
7
 
Social Power is Determined by the (Perception of the) Receiver
Note that the perception of the receiving agent on how effective power can be used goes a long way in defining the socia (...)
4
 
Bases of Social Power: What's Common?
What do these Bases of Social Power have in common? (...)
3
 
1条评论
Desire to Have Power...
Why do people desire social power? (...)
1
 
2条评论
Framing or Meaning Power
An additional source of power in organizations can be to establish the framework within which issues will be viewed and (...)
0
 
2条评论

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Assumed Power in a Void
Another type of power is that which is created in a void (Ed: ~ empty space) of leadership, that is assumed power. No on (...)
29
 
23条评论

2 more Types of Power
There are two other types of power. One is derived from dependency relationship. Any dependency for anything else makes (...)
7
 
7条评论

What is Referent Power? Definition and Examples
The definition for referent power in the summary of the basis of social power is not 100% clear when it says: "referen (...)
7
 
3条评论

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Bases of Social Power in the Context of Change Initiatives

Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context of change initiatives. The sour (...)

What precisely was Legitimate Power according to French and Raven? Definition

Precise Definition by French and Raven
While I appreciate and aknowledge that the definition of legitimate power, posed in this section, represents the current (...)

Mobilize the Expert Power in your Team Early On

Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or dec (...)

Seventh Source of Social Power (French & Raven)

Leadership, Management, Change Management
In addition to the above mentioned bases or sources of social (organizational) power, French and Raven also distinguishe (...)

Positional and Personal Bases of Power

Leadership
In The Power Theory of Leadership, Hayden analyses the bases of social power (excluding connectional power) and reiter (...)

The Relationship between the Power of Leaders and Overconfidence

Leadership, Power, Leadership Development, Executive Education
Fast et al. (2012) researched the relationship between power and overconfidence. In many cases it can be seen that decis (...)
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Power and Politics in Organizations

Power Relations, Bases of Power, Political Behavior, Politics, Political Tactics, Organizational Politics
This presentation covers the topic of politics in organization, especially focusing on power issues. The presentation in (...)

The Fatal Coaching Mistake by Managers

Coaching, Mentoring, Management, Leadership
Managers and executives often don't realize how much influence they have over their staff, by just being their superior (...)

Ineffective Leadership and Unethical Leadership

Leadership Types, Management, Ethics
Presentation about Bad or Unethical Leadership that includes the following sections: 1. Webs of Significance 2. The We (...)

Group Influences and Opinion Leadership

Groupthink, Group Dynamics, Word of Mouth Marketing, Sales, Opinion Leadership, Convincing People, Persuation
Presentation about Group Influences, including various related concepts such as the Social Comparison Theory and Word-of (...)

Power Tactics

Tactics to become powerful in organizations
6 common ways to become powerul in organizations. By Renuka Kuchipudi. (...)

Supervisory Power

International Differences
Study by M. Afzalur Rahim tested a structural equations model of the French and Raven bases of supervisory power (coerci (...)

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比较: Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]


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