Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]

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识别权力来源。 French和Raven的Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]解析。

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社会权力基础权力过程渗透于社会方方面面,不仅复杂,还常扮有伪装。 French和Raven的社会权力基础(Bases of Social Power)理论识别出五个(或六个)方面的社会权力基础(来源)。

  1. 奖赏权力Reward Power)。 这种权力基于给予正面有利结果,或去除负面不利结果所带来的力量。

  2. 强制权力(Coercive Power。 这种权力是指对违背旨意的人进行惩戒的力量。

  3. 法定权力(Legitimate Power。 这种权力是指通过选举或任命而担当一定职位所得到的行为力量,亦称组织权威(Organizational Authority规范权力(Normative Power。 比较: Organization Chart[组织结构图]

  4. 参照权力(Referent Power。 这种权力是由于成为别人学习参照榜样所拥有的力量。

  5. 专家权力(Expert Power。 这种权力来自于个人所拥有的专长、专门知识和特殊技能。

  6. 信息权力(Information Power 。 与5类似, 这种权力依赖于对某种他人必须的、重要信息的控制。

社会权力基础理论假定权力及其影响作用至少要卷入两个作用体, 并认为权力受体对于研究社会影响和权力现象更为有用。


French和Raven检阅了各种各样的权力后果,既有被权力所吸引的,也有对权力产生抵抗的。 吸引或抵抗都是权力受体对于权力作用体的情绪化反映。 他们总结到,权力基础不同,其产生的后果也不同。

例如,强制权力非常典型,它削弱吸引力,引起高度抵抗力。 而奖赏权力则会提高吸引力,并将抵抗力降到最低限度。


French和Raven还认为, 强制权力越合法(感觉而言),抵抗力就越薄弱,注意力也会随之减弱。


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比较: Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]


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