Gestión del Cambio | Gerencia de Implementación | Iceberg del Cambio

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Descripción del Iceberg del Cambio de Wilfried Krüger.

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La Iceberg del Cambio de Wilfried Krüger es una fuerte visualización sobre cuál es la esencia del cambio organizacional: ocuparse de las barreras.


La parte superior del iceberg

Según Krüger muchos gerentes del cambio consideran solamente la parte superior del iceberg: Costo, calidad y tiempo (“El Tema de la Administración").


Debajo de la superficie del iceberg

Sin embargo, debajo de la superficie del agua hay dos dimensiones más de la gestión del Cambio y de su puesta en práctica:

  • Administración de opiniones y creencias, y
  • Administración del poder y de la política

Se presenta qué clase de barreras, y qué clase de Gerencia de Implementación es por lo tanto la necesaria, dependiendo de:

1. la clase de cambio

     - "Sólo" cosas duras, rasguñar la superficie (sistemas de información, procesos),

     - Cambios suaves, a niveles mucho más profundos (los valores, marcos mentales y las capacidades)

2. la estrategia de cambio aplicada

     - cambio revolucionario, dramático como en Reingeniería de Procesos de Negocio

     - cambio evolutivo, incremental como en Kaizen


Gente implicada en el cambio

  • Los opositores tienen una actitud generalmente negativa hacia el cambio Y un comportamiento negativo hacia este cambio personal particular. Necesitan ser controlados por la administración de opiniones y de creencias para cambiar sus mentes tanto como sea posible.
  • Los promotores por otra parte, estos tienen una actitud genéricamente positiva hacia el cambio Y son positivos sobre este cambio para ellos personalmente, en particular. Se aprovechan del cambio y por lo tanto, lo apoyarán.
  • Los opositores ocultos tienen una actitud genéricamente negativa hacia el cambio aunque parecen apoyar el cambio en un nivel superficial (“Oportunistas”). Aquí la gestión de opiniones y de creencias apoyadas por la información (Administración del tema) es necesaria para cambiar su actitud.
  • Los promotores potenciales tienen generalmente una actitud positiva hacia el cambio, no obstante, por ciertas razones, no les convence (todavía) este cambio en particular. La administración del Poder y de la política parece ser la apropiada en este caso.

lidiando con el cambio

Krüger dice que la Gerencia General tiene una tarea y un desafío permanentes de ocuparse del cambio. sólo puede lograr resultados constantes en un nivel superficial con la aceptación que está debajo de la superficie. La base de la Gestión del Cambio está en ambas dimensiones, la interpersonal y del comportamiento; y la dimensión normativa y cultural; esta base está sujeta  a la Gestión del Poder y de la política, y en la Gestión de las opiniones y de las creencias.

cambie el iceberg de la gestión

Artículo: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Libro: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Libro: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


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Compare Gestión del Cambio, con: Modelo del Cambio de Beckhard   |  Consideraciones para Cambiar la Cultura de Organizaciones  |  Olvidar, Tomar Prestado y Aprender  |  Las fases del Cambio  |  Indagación Apreciativa  |  Desviación Positiva  |  Marco de Evaluación DICE  |  Análisis del Campo de Fuerzas  |  Teoría del Grupo Central  |  Bases del Poder Social  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Reingeniería  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensiones del Cambio  |  Siete Hábitos  | Niveles de Cultura  |  Tipos de Cultura Corporativa  |  RACI


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