Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪)

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Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪) 什么是文化类型? 释义

哈佛教授泰伦斯·狄尔(Terrence Deal)与麦肯锡咨询公司咨讯顾问艾伦·肯尼迪(Allen Kennedy)是最早一批致力于企业文化(Corporate Culture)研究的学者。 1982年,在他们的书作《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》(Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life)中,狄尔与肯尼迪认为, 组织文化简而言之就是组织的行事方式(The way things get done around here)。


在这本书中,他们还提出了企业文化的六个关联要素: 历史、价值观与信仰、礼仪与仪式,故事、英雄以及由企业内外不同群体所组成的文化网络。 他们通过以下两个因素来区分企业的文化类型:

  • 反馈速度(Feedback Speed: 企业活动获取反馈与回报的速度。
  • 风险程度(Degree of Risk: 企业活动的风险程度和不确定度。

根据这两个因素,企业文化即可划分出以下四个类型:

  1. 硬汉型文化(Tough-Guy Macho Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险大):
    • 因为高风险和回报的不确定性而产生压力。
    • 着眼当下,个人主义压倒团队精神。
    • 典型: 广告业、经济人行业、体育圈。
  2. 苦干型文化(Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险低):
    • 压力源自工作量,而非工作任务的不确定性。
    • 重视速度,超人工作。
    • 典型: 销售业、餐饮业、软件行业。
  3. 办差型文化(Process Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险低):
    • 压力一般较低,但组织内部政策以及官僚制度也有可能造成压力。
    • 关注细节与流程表现。
    • 典型: 政府机关、银行业、保险业、公共机构。
  4. 赌注型文化(Bet-Your-Company Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险高):
    • 压力源自高风险以及反馈与回报的滞后。
    • 目光长远,重视准备与规划。
    • 典型: 制药业、飞机制造业、石油勘探业。

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982) [中译本《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》,中国人民大学出版社,2008] -

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate Cultures (2000) [中译本《创造竞争优势:7大经营挑战与5大成功法宝》,台北先觉出版股份有限公司,2001] -


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比较: Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]


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