Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪)



Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪) 什么是文化类型? 释义

哈佛教授泰伦斯·狄尔(Terrence Deal)与麦肯锡咨询公司咨讯顾问艾伦·肯尼迪(Allen Kennedy)是最早一批致力于企业文化(Corporate Culture)研究的学者。 1982年,在他们的书作《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》(Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life)中,狄尔与肯尼迪认为, 组织文化简而言之就是组织的行事方式(The way things get done around here)。

在这本书中,他们还提出了企业文化的六个关联要素: 历史、价值观与信仰、礼仪与仪式,故事、英雄以及由企业内外不同群体所组成的文化网络。 他们通过以下两个因素来区分企业的文化类型:

  • 反馈速度(Feedback Speed: 企业活动获取反馈与回报的速度。
  • 风险程度(Degree of Risk: 企业活动的风险程度和不确定度。


  1. 硬汉型文化(Tough-Guy Macho Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险大):
    • 因为高风险和回报的不确定性而产生压力。
    • 着眼当下,个人主义压倒团队精神。
    • 典型: 广告业、经济人行业、体育圈。
  2. 苦干型文化(Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险低):
    • 压力源自工作量,而非工作任务的不确定性。
    • 重视速度,超人工作。
    • 典型: 销售业、餐饮业、软件行业。
  3. 办差型文化(Process Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险低):
    • 压力一般较低,但组织内部政策以及官僚制度也有可能造成压力。
    • 关注细节与流程表现。
    • 典型: 政府机关、银行业、保险业、公共机构。
  4. 赌注型文化(Bet-Your-Company Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险高):
    • 压力源自高风险以及反馈与回报的滞后。
    • 目光长远,重视准备与规划。
    • 典型: 制药业、飞机制造业、石油勘探业。

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982) [中译本《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》,中国人民大学出版社,2008] -

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate Cultures (2000) [中译本《创造竞争优势:7大经营挑战与5大成功法宝》,台北先觉出版股份有限公司,2001] -

企业文化 小组

小组 (12名成员)



Perfect Definition of Corporate Culture (Uttal, 1983)
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Creating an Innovative Organizational Culture
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Culture of Accountability
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🥇 Eight Types of Organizational Culture (Groysberg)
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🥉 How to Deal with a Culture of Gossip and Backbiting?
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Innovation in a Target / Performance Culture
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Another Culture Type: the Yes Culture
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Do Competitive Work Cultures Lead to Better Performance?
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The Effects of Leadership on Organizational Culture
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Culture Types Useful Model
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High Performance Work Culture
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Connecting Culture and the Dominant Strategy
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International Culture Types
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Corporate Culture专家提示(英语)


Establishing an Organizational Culture of Perpetual Crisis

Corporate Culture Best Practice (...)

Strategies to Change Employee Habits, Hearts and Heads

Changing Organization Cultures (...)

Pitfalls and Best Practices in Culture Change

Changing Organizational Cultures, What to DO and what NOT (...)

Why is Changing an Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment (...)

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

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Top-5 Reasons for Burnouts are All Management-related!

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The Importance of Culture in Organizational Performance

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7 Mechanisms to Change Corporate Cultures

Change Management, Organizational Change, Culture Change (...)

PROs and CONs of a Strong Corporate Culture

Corporate Culture Change, Change Management, Organizational Change (...)



比较: Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]

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