Change Management Iceberg (Айсберг управления изменениями)

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Change Management Iceberg (Айсберг управления изменениями) Wilfried Krüger - эффектная визуализация того, что, вероятно, является сутью изменения в организациях: реагирование на препятствия.


Верхняя часть айсберга

Согласно Krüger много менеджеров, ответственых за внедрение изменений, принимают во внимание только верхнюю часть айсберга: затраты, качество и время («Управление проблемами (Issue Management)»).


Под поверхностью айсберга

Однако, под поверхностью воды существуют еще 2 параметра управления изменениями и внедрением:

  • Управление восприятиями и убеждениями (Management of Perceptions and Beliefs), и
  • Управление властными и политическими полномочиями (Power and Politics Management)

То, какие препятствия возникают и какая форма управления исполнением в связи с этим необходима, зависит от следующих факторов:

1. вид изменения

     - «только» практичные, точные вещи (информационные системы, процессы) едва затрагивают поверхность,

     - "мягкие" вещи (ценности, образы мыслей и возможности) значительно более основательны

2. применяемая стратегия изменения

     - революционное, значительное изменение как в Business Process Reengineering (Реорганизация бизнес процессов)

     - эволюционное, инкрементальное изменение как в Kaizen (Кайдзен)


Люди, задействованные в процессе изменения

  • Противники (Opponents) имеют негативное общее отношение к изменению и негативное поведение по отношению к конкретному личному изменению. Их надо контролировать посредством Управления восприятиями и убеждениями для того, чтобы заставить их изменить свое мнение насколько возможно.
  • Сторонники (Promoters), с другой стороны, имеют положительное общее отношение к изменению и к конкретному личному изменению. Они используют изменение в своих интересах и поэтому поддерживают его.
  • Скрытые противники ( Hidden Opponents) имеют негативное общее отношение к изменению, хотя может казаться, что они поддерживают изменение поверхностно («оппортунисты»). Здесь необходимо Управление восприятиями и убеждениями при информационной поддержке (Управление проблемами) для того, чтобы изменить их отношение.
  • Потенциальное сторонники (Potential Promoters) имеют общее положительное отношение к изменению, тем не менее в виду определенных причин они не до конца убеждены (пока) в необходимости этого конкретного изменения. Управление властными и политическими полномочиями, верояьно, наиболее уместно в этом случае.

Управление изменением

Krüger отмечает, что общее руководство сталкивается с постоянной задачей управлять изменением. Поверхностное управление проблемами может достичь результатов только на уровне, совместимом с поверхностным восприятием. Основа Управления изменениями находится как в межличностном и поведенческом измерении, так и в нормативном и культурном измерении, а также в сочетании с управлением властными и политическими полномочиями и управлением восприятиями и убеждениями.

измените айсберг менеджмента

Статья: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Книга: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change

Книга: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap


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Сравните с Change Management Iceberg (Айсберг управления изменениями): Change Model Beckhard (Модель перемен Beckhard)  |  Changing Organization Cultures (Изменение организационных культур)  |  Forget Borrow Learn (Забыть, занять, выучить)  |  Change Phases (Фазы перемен)  |  Appreciative Inquiry (Восприимчивое дознание)  |  Positive Deviance (Позитивное отклонение)  |  DICE Framework (Концепция DICE)  |  Force Field Analysis (Анализ силового поля)  |  Core Group Theory (Теория центральной группы)  |  Bases of Social Power (Основания социальной власти)  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior (Запланированное поведение)  |  Business Process Reengineering (Реорганизация бизнес процессов)  |  Kaizen (Кайдзен)  |  Dimensions of Change (Параметры перемен)  |  Seven Habits (7 привычек)  | Levels of Culture (Уровни культуры)  |  Culture Types (Культурные типы)  |  RACI


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