Veränderungsmanagement Eisberg

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Erklärung des Veränderungsmanagement Eisberg von Wilfried Krüger.

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Der Veränderungsmanagement Eisberg von Wilfried Krüger ist eine starke Visualisierung von dem, was wohl das Wesentliche der Änderung in Organisationen ist: Barrieren bewältigen.


Die Spitze des Eisbergs

Laut Krüger betrachten viele Änderungsmanager nur die Spitze des Eisbergs: Kosten, Qualität und Zeit („Themenmanagement“).


Unterhalb der Oberfläche des Eisbergs

Jedoch unterhalb der Wasseroberfläche gibt es zwei weitere Dimensionen des Veränderungs-und Implementierungsmanagements:

  • Management von Vorstellungen und Glauben und
  • Macht-und Politikmanagement

Welche Arten von Barrieren entstehen und welche Art von Implementierungsmanagement infolgedessen erforderlich ist, hängt ab von:

1. der Art der Änderung

     - "nur" harte Sachen (Informationssysteme, Prozesse) kratzen an der Oberfläche,

     - auch weiche Sachen (Werte, Denkrichtungen und Fähigkeiten) sind viel profunder

2. die angewandte Änderungsstrategie

     - revolutionäre, drastische Änderung wie im Business Process Reengineering-Ansatz

     - evolutionäre, zusätzliche Änderung wie in Kaizen-Konzept


Leute involviert in der Veränderung

  • Gegner haben eine negative allgemeine Haltung gegenüber Änderung UND ein negatives Verhalten in Richtung zu dieser bestimmten persönlichen Änderung. Sie müssen von Management von Wahrnehmungen gesteuert werden und ihren Verstand Glauben soweit wie möglich ändern.
  • Förderer einerseits haben eine positive generische Haltung gegenüber Änderung UND sind gegenüber dieser bestimmten Änderung für sich persönlich positiv eingestellt. Sie nutzen die Änderung zu ihrem Vorteil und werden sie folglich unterstützen.
  • Versteckte Gegner haben eine negative generische Haltung gegenüber Änderung, obgleich sie scheinen, die Änderung auf einem oberflächlichen Niveau („Opportunisten“) zu unterstützen. Hier ist Management der Vorstellungen und der Glauben, unterstützt durch Informationen (Themenmanagement) erforderlich, um ihre Haltung zu ändern.
  • Mögliche Förderer haben eine generische positive einstellung gegenüber Änderung, gleichwohl aus bestimmten Gründen sie (schon) nicht über diese bestimmte Änderung überzeugt sind. Kraft- und Politik-Management scheint, angebracht zu sein in diesem Fall.

Veränderung bewältigen

Krüger sagt, dass die Geschäftsleitung eine dauerhafte Aufgabe und eine Herausforderung hat, sich mit Veränderung zu befassen. Oberflächliches Themenmanagement kann Resultate nur auf einem Niveau erzielen, die mit der Akzeptanz konsistent sind, die unterhalb der Oberfläche ist. Die Basis von Veränderungsmanagement liegt in der zwischenmenschlichen und Verhaltensdimension und in der normativen und kulturellen Dimension und ist abhängig von Macht- und Politikmanagement und vom Management der Vorstellungen und Glauben.

Veränderungsmanagementeisberg

Artikel: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Buch: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Buch: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


Veränderungsmanagement Eisberg Fachgruppe


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