IJsberg van Verandermanagement

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Verklaring van de IJsberg van Verandermanagement van Wilfried Krüger.

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De IJsberg van Verandermanagement van Wilfried Krüger is een sterke visualisatie van wat over het algemeen de essentie is van verandering in organisaties: het behandelen van barrières.


De bovenkant van de ijsberg

Volgens Krüger overwegen vele veranderingsmanagers slechts de bovenkant van de ijsberg: Kosten, Kwaliteit en Tijd („Issuemanagement“).


Onder de oppervlakte van de ijsberg

Maar onder de oppervlakte van het water zijn er nog twee extra dimensies van het Veranderingsmanagement en van de implementatie:

  • Het Management van Percepties en Geloven, en
  • Power (Macht) en Politiek Management.

Welke soort barrières zich voordoen, en welke soort Implementatie Management bij gevolg nodig is, hangt af van:

1. het soort Verandering

     - alleen harde dingen (informatiesystemen, processen) raken „slechts“ de oppervlakte,

     - de zachte dingen (waarden, denkrichtingen en mogelijkheden) zijn diepgaander.

2. de toegepaste Veranderingsstrategie

     - revolutionaire, dramatische verandering zoals in Business Process Reengineering (Herontwerpen van Bedrijfs Processen)

     - opeenvolgende, incrementele verandering zoals in Kaizen-filosofie


Mensen die betrokken zijn bij Verandering

  • Tegenstanders hebben zowel een negatieve algemene houding ten opzichte van verandering ALS als een negatief gedrag naar deze bepaalde persoonlijke verandering. Zij moeten door Management van Percepties en Overtuigingen worden gecontroleerd om hun meningen zo ver mogelijk te veranderen.
  • Promotors aan de andere kant, hebben zowel een positieve generieke houding ten opzichte van verandering EN zij zijn positief over deze specifieke verandering voor henzelf. Zij halen voordeel uit de verandering en zullen deze daarom steunen.
  • Verborgen Tegenstanders hebben een negatieve generieke houding ten opzichte van verandering, hoewel zij de verandering op oppervlakkig niveau schijnen te steunen („Opportunisten“). Hier is Management van Percepties en Geloven noodzakelijk om hun houding te veranderen, ondersteund door informatie (Issue management).
  • Potentiële Promotors hebben een generieke positieve houding ten opzichte van verandering, maar om bepaalde redenen zijn zij (nog) niet overtuigd van deze bepaalde verandering. Macht en Politiek management schijnt in dit geval passend te zijn.

Omgaan met verandering

Krüger zegt dat het algemene management een permanente taak en uitdaging heeft om met verandering om te gaan. Oppervlakkig Issue Management kan alleen resultaten op een niveau bereiken dat consistent is met de acceptatie die onder de oppervlakte ligt. De basis van Change Management ligt in zowel de inter-persoonlijke als in de gedragsdimensie en in de normatieve en culturele dimensie, en is onderworpen aan Macht en Politiek Management en aan het Management van Percepties en Geloven.

de ijsberg van het veranderingsmanagement

Artikel: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Boek: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Boek: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


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