Change Management Iceberg

Knowledge Center


Explanation of Change Management Iceberg of Wilfried Krüger.



The Change Management Iceberg of Wilfried Krüger is a strong visualization of what is arguably the essence of change in organizations: dealing with barriers.

The top of the iceberg

According to Krüger many change managers only consider the top of the iceberg: Cost, Quality and Time ("Issue Management").

Below the surface of the iceberg

However, below the surface of the water there are two more dimensions of Change and implementation Management:

  • Management of Perceptions and Beliefs, and
  • Power and Politics Management

What kind of barriers arise, and what kind of Implementation Management is consequently needed, depends on:

1. the kind of Change

     - hard things "only" (information systems, processes)  just scratches the surface,

     - soft things also (values, mindsets and capabilities) is much more profound

2. the applied Change strategy

     - revolutionary, dramatic change as in Business Process Reengineering

     - evolutionary, incremental change as in Kaizen

People involved in Change

  • Opponents have both a negative general attitude towards change AND a negative behavior towards this particular personal change. They need to be controlled by Management of Perceptions and Beliefs to change their minds as far as possible.
  • Promoters on the other hand have both a positive generic attitude towards change AND are positive about this particular change for them personally. They take advantage of the change and will therefore support it.
  • Hidden Opponents have a negative generic attitude towards change although they seem to be supporting the change on a superficial level ("Opportunists"). Here Management  of Perceptions and Beliefs supported by information (Issue management ) is needed to change their attitude.
  • Potential Promoters have a generic positive attitude towards change, however for certain reasons they are not convinced (yet) about this particular change. Power and Politics management seems to be appropriate in this case.

Dealing with Change

Krüger says the general management has a permanent task and challenge to deal with change. Superficial Issue Management can only achieve results at a level consistent with the acceptance that is below the surface. The base of Change Management is in both the interpersonal and behavioral dimension and the normative and cultural dimension, and is subject to Power and Politics management, and to the management of Perceptions and Beliefs.

change management iceberg

Article: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Book: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Book: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -

Change Management Iceberg Special Interest Group

Special Interest Group (772 members)

Change Management Iceberg Forum  

Recent topics

  Achieving Change at the Individual Level      
  Why You should Embrace Change      
  Dealing with Toxic Employees      

Best Practices - Change Management Iceberg
  Reasons and Motives to Resist Change
  The ADKAR model by Prosci
  How to Make Employees LOVE Change?
  What are the Reasons for Change?
  Hidden Resistance to Change
  Bad Change Management Examples

All you need to know about management

  Transparancy Needed in Change Management
  What Punishment for Unwilling Employees?
  Is it Possible to Manage Change If the Right Approaches Are NOT Used?
  What Leadership Style Reduces Resistance?
  6 Images of Managing Change (Palmer, Dunford and Akin)
  My Way to Deal with Resistance to Change
  Dealing with Change is Not Always Problematic
  Engage the Opponents
  Types of Change and Corresponding Resistance Levels
  Automatic Defense Mechanisms to Change
  Avoiding Resistance to Change
  Characteristics of Organizations That are Open to Change
  Managing Change is in the Essence of Management
  Good Change Management Examples
  Create Involvement and Communicate the Strategic Need to Change
  Human Factors in Change Management
  Communicating Change to Top Management
  Managing the Change Within Oneself
  Ethics in Change Management
  Change is Most of the Times Selfish
  Overcoming Resistance? The Rapid Results Method by Schaffer
  Who Moved my Cheese?
  Adding Two More Hats in People Involved
  What are the Future Trends in Managing Organizational Change?
  The Role of Conflicting Interests in Change Management
  Checking Team Alignment: T4
  The Usefulness of Iceberg to Management?
  Equilibrium of System
  Change is the Essence of Human Being Evolution

Expert Tips - Change Management Iceberg

I'll never use the term 'Resistance to Change' again


Addressing Concerns Against Change and their Remedies


Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents


Leadership Strategies for Change


Understanding Why Resistance Occurs


Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program


What Change Agents Should I Use?


The Need to Communicate the REASONS for Change


Critical Leadership Skills


Role of Recruiting in Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)


Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change


Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation


Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How


The 7C Framework for Successful Personal and Professional Change


The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation


Advance yourself in business administration and management

Resources - Change Management Iceberg

22 Best Practices in Change Management


The Nature and Complexity of Organizational Change


Dealing with Strong Resisters


Avoiding Resistance: Communicate Organizational Change to Affected Audiences


What is Change Management?


Effective Change Leadership and Management: Principles, Frameworks and Tools


Professor Evans Explains Why Fast Change Requires New Ways of Learning and Thinking


Dealing with Resistance to Change


Resistance to Change and Its Management


Managing Organizational Change


Change Management in an Information Technology / IT Context


Tips for Successful Change Management


Managing Organizational Change and Managing Stress


Evaluating Organizational Change: Approaches, Reasons, Types and Processes


The X Model of Employee Engagement


The Importance of Adapting to Change


Article by Krüger 1


Role of Leadership in Change Management


Change Management Iceberg Diagram


Article by Krüger 2


News about Change Iceberg


News about Change Resistance


Videos about Change Iceberg


Videos about Change Resistance


Presentations about Change Iceberg


Presentations about Change Resistance


Books about Change Iceberg


Books about Change Resistance


More about Change Iceberg


More about Change Resistance


Accelerate your management career

Compare with the Change Management Iceberg: Change Model Beckhard  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Forget Borrow Learn  |  Change Phases  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  DICE Framework  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Seven Habits  | Levels of Culture  |  Culture Types  |  RACI

Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership  |  Program & Project Management

More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader
Business Consultant

About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2018 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Last updated: 18-10-2018. All names ™ of their owners.