Change Management Iceberg

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Explanation of Change Management Iceberg of Wilfried Krüger.


The Change Management Iceberg of Wilfried Krüger is a strong visualization of what is arguably the essence of change in organizations: dealing with barriers.


The top of the iceberg

According to Krüger many change managers only consider the top of the iceberg: Cost, Quality and Time ("Issue Management").


Below the surface of the iceberg

However, below the surface of the water there are two more dimensions of Change and implementation Management:

  • Management of Perceptions and Beliefs, and
  • Power and Politics Management

What kind of barriers arise, and what kind of Implementation Management is consequently needed, depends on:

1. the kind of Change

     - hard things "only" (information systems, processes)  just scratches the surface,

     - soft things also (values, mindsets and capabilities) is much more profound

2. the applied Change strategy

     - revolutionary, dramatic change as in Business Process Reengineering

     - evolutionary, incremental change as in Kaizen


People involved in Change

  • Opponents have both a negative general attitude towards change AND a negative behavior towards this particular personal change. They need to be controlled by Management of Perceptions and Beliefs to change their minds as far as possible.
  • Promoters on the other hand have both a positive generic attitude towards change AND are positive about this particular change for them personally. They take advantage of the change and will therefore support it.
  • Hidden Opponents have a negative generic attitude towards change although they seem to be supporting the change on a superficial level ("Opportunists"). Here Management  of Perceptions and Beliefs supported by information (Issue management ) is needed to change their attitude.
  • Potential Promoters have a generic positive attitude towards change, however for certain reasons they are not convinced (yet) about this particular change. Power and Politics management seems to be appropriate in this case.

Dealing with Change

Krüger says the general management has a permanent task and challenge to deal with change. Superficial Issue Management can only achieve results at a level consistent with the acceptance that is below the surface. The base of Change Management is in both the interpersonal and behavioral dimension and the normative and cultural dimension, and is subject to Power and Politics management, and to the management of Perceptions and Beliefs.

change management iceberg

Article: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Book: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Book: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


Special Interest Group - Change Management (Iceberg)


Special Interest Group (761 members)


Forum - Change Management (Iceberg)  

Discussions about Change Management (Iceberg).


  Reasons and Motives to Resist Change
I'm trying to collect a list of all motives for resistance to change by employees. Henk Kleijn and (...)
 
 
 
 
  How to Make Employees LOVE Change?
Most of the discussions in this particular forum on the change iceberg are about RESISTANCE to chang (...)
 
 
 
 
  Hidden Resistance to Change
It is very important to recognize that the most powerful resistance does NOT come from those who ope (...)
 
 
 
 
  Bad Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management miserably? What went wrong (...)
 
 
 
 
  Transparancy Needed in Change Management
I think everyone who is involved in change processes needs to practice "transparency" in a way to ab (...)
 
 
 
 
  Is it Possible to Manage Change If the Right Approaches Are NOT Used?
Hi all, I've been focussing on this question for a week now and I find that unless if the right appr (...)
 
 
 
 
  What Leadership Style Reduces Resistance?
The importance of employees being committed to change cannot be underestimated nowadays, since more (...)
 
 
 
 
  Dealing with Change is Not Always Problematic
I think there's a degree of over complexity here. In many instances humans do cope well with change, (...)
 
 
 
 
  Engage the Opponents
When you engage the "tough nuts" on your team and get them involved from the outset, your chance of (...)
 
 
 
 
  Types of Change and Corresponding Resistance Levels
Change may be a evolved or evolutionary change. Or a revolutionary, or forced, top down or bottom up (...)
 
 
 
 
  Characteristics of Organizations That are Open to Change
To what extent should an organisation be open to regular change management initiatives. Are certain (...)
 
 
 
 
  Avoiding Resistance to Change
There will always be change from time to time and management and staff apprehension will always be p (...)
 
 
 
 
  Good Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management effectively? What are the k (...)
 
 
 
 
  Create Involvement and Communicate the Strategic Need to Change
Changes in general are difficult and, in most cases, we live them more like a threat than an opportu (...)
 
 
 
 
Hot Dealing with Toxic Employees
In modern society and organizations, very negative, destructive, "toxic" team members may damage an (...)
 
 
 
 
  Categories of People Involved in Change
Krueger takes cognizance of four types of major players involved or appear to be directly involved i (...)
 
 
 
 
  Overcoming Resistance? The Rapid Results Method by Schaffer
I have recently come across the interesting "Rapid Results" method of implementing change by Robert (...)
 
 
 
 
  Achieving Change at the Individual Level
It is a known fact that in order to have an effective change implementation at the organisation leve (...)
 
 
 
 
  Human Factors in Change Management
An important part of change management is dealing with human factors --- reactions to implementation (...)
 
 
 
 
  Why You should Embrace Change
Wildebeest that travel thousands of miles every year to get to water during the dry season will walk (...)
 
 
 
 
  Communicating Change to Top Management
What are the different ways of communicating change to top management? (...)
 
 
 
 
  Ethics in Change Management
What does one do when as a change agent, one realizes that what is being asked will finally be damag (...)
 
 
 
 
  Change is Most of the Times Selfish
The problem I find with change is that in most cases, it favors the organization more than the emplo (...)
 
 
 
 
  Who Moved my Cheese?
The book 'WHO MOVED MY CHEESE' is a very good book for management student. Who Moved My Cheese was (...)
 
 
 
 
  Managing the Change Within Oneself
What about the change we manage within ourselves everyday, everytime? Can anyone please share any ex (...)
 
 
 
 
  Equilibrium of System
Managers should not forget that they are part of a system they work in. Even minor changes will have (...)
 
 
 
 

Best Practices - Change Management (Iceberg)

Here you find the most valuable discussions from the past.


  The ADKAR model by Prosci
The ADKAR model by Prosci (1998) helps to deal with the people dimension of change. It can be used t (...)
 
 
 
 
  What are the Reasons for Change?
Why do we really need change in the first place? What are the sources / reasons for the need to chan (...)
 
 
 
 
  What Punishment for Unwilling Employees?
My question is this: when an organization wants to bring change in the organization, we know that if (...)
 
 
 
 
  6 Images of Managing Change (Palmer, Dunford and Akin)
Palmer, Dunford and Akin provide vision and direction for managers to think about their role in mana (...)
 
 
 
 
  My Way to Deal with Resistance to Change
I am a head teacher in a large secondary school in Scotland. Here the trade unions are very powerful (...)
 
 
 
 
  Automatic Defense Mechanisms to Change
What I think is that human beings are reluctant for change by nature. When there is a change taking (...)
 
 
 
 
  Managing Change is in the Essence of Management
If there are no needs to change, why do we need management? Managing change is in the essence of man (...)
 
 
 
 

Expert Tips - Change Management (Iceberg)

Here you will find advices by experts.


 

I'll never use the term 'Resistance to Change' again

Resistance to Change is a Defensive Attitude... (...)
 
 
 

Addressing Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management (...)
 
 
 

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives (...)
 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change (...)
 
 
 

Understanding Why Resistance Occurs

Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important (...)
 
 
 

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change (...)
 
 
 

Role of Recruiting in Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment (...)
 
 
 

What Change Agents Should I Use?

Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management (...)
 
 
 

The Need to Communicate the REASONS for Change

Change Management (...)
 
 
 

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change

Leading Change (...)
 
 
 

Critical Leadership Skills

Tackling the Six Stages of Concern (...)
 
 
 

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation (...)
 
 
 

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

Preparing Strategic Change (...)
 
 
 

The 7C Framework for Successful Personal and Professional Change

Personal Change, Professional Change, Personal Transition, Professional Transition, Embracing Change (...)
 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

Communicating Strategic Change (...)
 
 

Resources - Change Management (Iceberg)

Here you find powerpoint presentations, micro-learning videos and further information sources.


22 Best Practices in Change Management

Change Management, Organizational Change (...)
 

The Nature and Complexity of Organizational Change

Change Management, Organizational Change (...)
 

Dealing with Strong Resisters

Dealing with Resistance to Change, Change Management, Training, Workshop (...)
 

Avoiding Resistance: Communicate Organizational Change to Affected Audiences

Organizational Change, Change Management, Change Communications (...)
 

Effective Change Leadership and Management: Principles, Frameworks and Tools

Change Management, Change Leadership (...)
 

What is Change Management?

Initial Understanding of Change Management (...)
 

Professor Evans Explains Why Fast Change Requires New Ways of Learning and Thinking

Action Learning, Coping with Change, The Need of Change, The Need for New Ways of Learning (...)
 

Tips for Successful Change Management

Initial Understanding of How to Manage Change Successfully (...)
 

Dealing with Resistance to Change

Change Management, Resistance to Change (...)
 

Resistance to Change and Its Management

Change Management, Resistance to Change, Change Resistance (...)
 

Managing Organizational Change

Change Management, Leading Change, Organizational Development (...)
 

Change Management in an Information Technology / IT Context

Change Management, Information Systems Planning, Information Systems Architecture, Information Systems Implementation (...)
 

Managing Organizational Change and Managing Stress

Organizational Change; Change Management; Stress Management (...)
 

Evaluating Organizational Change: Approaches, Reasons, Types and Processes

Change Management, Success of Organizational Change, Organizational Learning (...)
 

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude (...)
 

The Importance of Adapting to Change

Change Management, Need to Change, Change Management (...)
 

Article by Krüger 1

Change Management (...)
 

Role of Leadership in Change Management

Change Management, Leadership (...)
 

Change Management Iceberg Diagram

Resistance to Change (...)
 

Article by Krüger 2

Change Management (...)
 

Compare with the Change Management Iceberg: Change Model Beckhard  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Forget Borrow Learn  |  Change Phases  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  DICE Framework  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Seven Habits  | Levels of Culture  |  Culture Types  |  RACI


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership  |  Program & Project Management


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