Iceberg de Gestion du Changement

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Définition de l'Iceberg de Gestion du Changement de Wilfried Krüger.

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L'Iceberg de Gestion du Changement (Change Management Iceberg) de Wilfried Krüger est une image forte de ce qui fait l'essence du changement dans les organisations (ce qui est discutable) : traiter avec des barrières.


Le sommet de l'iceberg

Selon Krüger beaucoup de responsables du changement considèrent seulement le sommet de l'iceberg : Coût, Délai et Qualité (Cost, Time, Quality) "Gestion du problème" (Issue Management).


En dessous de la surface de l'iceberg

Cependant, sous la surface de l'eau, il y a deux dimensions supplémentaires de gestion du changement et de mise en oeuvre :

  • Gestion des perceptions et des croyances, et
  • Gestion politique et d'influence

Quel genre de barrières surgissent ? et par conséquent, quel genre de Gestion d'Exécution est nécessaire ? cela dépend de :

1. le genre de Changement

     - le matériel « seulement » (les systèmes d'information, les processus) égratigne juste la surface,

     - l'humain aussi (les valeurs, les mentalités et les aptitudes) est beaucoup plus profond

2. la stratégie de changement appliquée

     - changement révolutionnaire et spectaculaire comme dans le BPR Réingénierie des Processus des Activités

     - changement évolutionnaire et incrémental comme dans la méthode Kaizen


Les personnes impliquées dans le changement

  • Les adversaires ont une attitude générale négative envers le changement ET un comportement négatif vers ce changement personnel particulier. Ils ont besoin ont sont commandé par la gestion des perceptions et des croyances pour changer d'avis aussi loin que possible.
  • Les promoteurs (Promoters) d'une part ils ont une attitude générique positive envers le changement ET sont positifs au sujet de ce changement particulier pour eux-mêmes. Ils tirent profit du changement et donc l'aideront.
  • Les adversaires cachés (Hidden opponents) ils ont une attitude générique négative envers le changement bien qu'ils semblent aider le changement à un niveau superficiel (« opportunistes »). Ici la gestion des perceptions et des croyances aidée par l'information (traitement du problème) est nécessaire au changement d'attitude.
  • Les promoteurs potentiels ont une attitude positive générique envers le changement, toutefois pour certaines raisons ils ne sont pas convaincus (encore) au sujet de ce changement particulier. Le gestion politique et d'influence semble a sont approprié dans ce cas-ci.

Traiter Changement

Krüger indique que la direction générale a une tâche et un challenge permanents pour traiter du changement. Le traitement superficiel des problèmes peut seulement réaliser des résultats à un niveau en conformité avec ce qui est en dessous de la surface. La base de la gestion du changement est dans la dimension interpersonnelle et comportementale et la dimension normative et culturelle, et est sujet au gestion politique et d'influence, et à la gestion des perceptions et des croyances.

iceberg de gestion du changement

Article: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Livre : Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Livre : Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


Iceberg de Gestion du Changement Groupe d'Intérêt Spécial


Groupe d'Intérêt Spécial (61 membres)


Forum de Iceberg de Gestion du Changement  

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Comparez l'Iceberg de Gestion du Changement avec : Changez Beckhard modèle  |  Changement des Cultures d'Organisation  |  Oubliez Empruntez Apprenez  |  Phases du Changement  |  Enquête d'Appréciation  |  Déviance Positive  |  Fondement DICE  |  Analyse du Champ de Force  |  Théorie du Noyau Dur  |  Bases Sociales de la Puissance  |  La Méthode MSP  |  PMMM (MMMP)  |  Théorie du Comportement Planifié  |  Réingénierie des Processus de Gestion   |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions du Changement  |  Sept Bonnes Habitudes  | Niveaux de Culture  |  Types de culture  |  RACI


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