Change Management Iceberg

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Explanação do Change Management Iceberg de Wilfried Krüger.


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O Change Management Iceberg de Wilfried Krüger é um visualization forte de o que é arguably a essência da mudança nas organizações: tratar das barreiras.

O alto do iceberg

De acordo com Krüger muitas gerente da mudança consideram somente o alto do iceberg: Custo, qualidade e tempo (“Issue Management”).

Abaixo da superfície do iceberg

Entretanto, abaixo da superfície da água há duas mais dimensões da gerência da mudança e da execução:

  • Gerência das percepções e da opinião, e
  • Power e gerência da política

Que tipo das barreiras se levanta, e que tipo de Implementation Management é conseqüentemente needed, depende de:

1. o tipo da mudança

     - riscos justos duros das coisas “somente” (sistemas, processos de informação) a superfície,

     - as coisas macias também (valores, mindsets e potencialidades) são muito mais profundas

2. a estratégia aplicada da mudança

     - mudança revolucionária, dramática como no Business Process Reengineering

     - mudança evolucionária, incremental como em Kaizen

Povos envolvidos na mudança

  • Os oponentes têm uma atitude geral negativa para a mudança E um comportamento negativo para esta mudança pessoal particular. Necessitam ser controlados por Gerência das percepções e da opinião para mudar tão distante quanto possível suas mentes.
  • Os Promoters na uma mão têm uma atitude genérico positiva para a mudança E são positivos sobre esta mudança particular para eles pessoalmente. Fazem exame da vantagem da mudança e suportá-la-ão conseqüentemente.
  • Os oponentes escondidos têm uma atitude genérico negativa para a mudança embora pareçam suportar a mudança em um nível superficial (“Opportunists”). Aqui a gerência das percepções e da opinião suportadas pela informação (gerência da edição) é needed mudar sua atitude.
  • Os Promoters potenciais têm uma atitude positiva genérico para a mudança, porém para determinadas razões não são convencidos (ainda) sobre esta mudança particular. A gerência de Power e da política parece ser apropriada neste caso.

Tratar da mudança

Krüger diz que a gerência geral tem uma tarefa e um desafio permanentes tratar da mudança. Issue Management Superficial pode somente conseguir resultados em um nível consistente com a aceitação que está abaixo da superfície. A base de Change Management é na dimensão interpersonal e behavioral e na dimensão normativa e cultural, e é sujeita à gerência de Power e da política, e à gerência das percepções e da opinião.

mude o iceberg da gerência

Artigo: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Livro: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Livro: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -

Fórum de Change Management Iceberg
  Achieving Change at the Individual Level
It is a known fact that in order to have an effective change implementation at the organisation level you need change at the individual level. Every individual aspiring to implement change spends his energy in the form of planning, debating, deciding...
  Why You should Embrace Change
Wildebeest that travel thousands of miles every year to get to water during the dry season will walk in a windy pattern a lot of the time. In fact, when they move around across the plains, they will continuously assess the environment they are in rig...
  Create Involvement and Communicate the Strategic Need to Change
Changes in general are difficult and, in most cases, we live them more like a threat than an opportunity. As we all know, these resistors are not random, but part of the deep survival mechanism that humans have developed over thousands of years.
  Avoiding Resistance to Change
There will always be change from time to time and management and staff apprehension will always be part of the issues to be dealt with.
Fear, guilt, threat, doubt and and all other motives fo...
  Checking Team Alignment: T4
I've recently piloted a strength-based approach to change using a free on-line tool combined with an appreciative approach. Initial output is very rich and teams are engaged.
Here’s the...
  Who Moved my Cheese?
The book 'WHO MOVED MY CHEESE' is a very good book for management student.
Who Moved My Cheese was published in 1998. A parable written by Spencer Johnson which describes change in one’s work and life. Who Moved My Cheese was included in the N...
  Overcoming Resistance? The Rapid Results Method by Schaffer
I have recently come across the interesting "Rapid Results" method of implementing change by Robert H. Schaffer ('Rapid Results!' (2005)).
A Rapid Results (RR) Project, in short, is an adrenaline-charged change, fast-moving, exciting, energizing...
  The Role of Conflicting Interests in Change Management
One reason change management in the private sector is complex is in the competing interests from owners, existing employees and patronage in the system....
  Dealing with Change is Not Always Problematic
I think there's a degree of over complexity here. In many instances humans do cope well with change, most usually when such change is under their control or when external influences are compatible with those things that genuinely motivate us -...
  Human Factors in Change Management
An important part of change management is dealing with human factors --- reactions to implementation which for both individuals and groups occur in phases. These can be laughing at the change, resisting it, accepting it, then taking it ...
  What are the Future Trends in Managing Organizational Change?
I am trying to findout what would be the future trends of managing organizational change, what they would be?...
  The Usefulness of Iceberg to Management?
What is the usefulness of the organisational iceberg model to the managers?...
  6 Images of Managing Change (Palmer, Dunford and Akin)
Palmer, Dunford and Akin provide vision and direction for managers to think about their role in managing organizational change. They suggest that during the course of a change the following 6 Images of Managing Change (roles) are in pla...
  Hidden Resistance to Change
It is very important to recognize that the most powerful resistance does NOT come from those who openly disagree with you. For such people you can easily ague it out with them and know where the process need to be fixed or maintained. The most...
  Transparancy Needed in Change Management
I think everyone who is involved in change processes needs to practice "transparency" in a way to abstain from misunderstanding, mis-communication and building up trust.
Especially the management group must provide a clear picture to related sta...
  Is it Possible to Manage Change If the Right Approaches Are NOT Used?
Hi all, I've been focussing on this question for a week now and I find that unless if the right approaches, like that of implementing, communication and strategy are used, you end up creating problems which leave an organisation unable to manage chan...

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Melhores Práticas - Change Management Iceberg Premium
  How to Make Employees LOVE Change?
Most of the discussions in this particular forum on the change iceberg are about RESISTANCE to change. My question is how to make people LOVE change... Why not create and exploit that situation? And what are the best options and approaches to ...
  What Leadership Style Reduces Resistance?
The importance of employees being committed to change cannot be underestimated nowadays, since more and more organizations are operating in a dynamic environment, both internally and externally.
How should leaders behave so as to maximize commit...
  Reasons and Motives to Resist Change
I'm trying to collect a list of all motives for resistance to change by employees.
Henk Kleijn and Fred Rorink in their book 'Change management' indicate that there are multiple psychological motives for showing resistance by employees or manage...
  What Punishment for Unwilling Employees?
My question is this: when an organization wants to bring change in the organization, we know that if employees are in favour of the change then we reward them and if they are not then they are punched.
So in what way we punish those employees...
  Bad Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management miserably? What went wrong and why? Thanks!...
  What are the Reasons for Change?
Why do we really need change in the first place? What are the sources / reasons for the need to change?...

Expert Tips (ENG) - Change Management Iceberg Premium

I'll never use the term 'Resistance to Change' again

I am working as a change manager in a German IT company. Somebody advised me the other day to read an article about resistance to change by Jeffrey an...
Usage (application): Resistance to Change is a Defensive Attitude...

Addressing Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

According to Ken Blanchard in the article “Mastering the Art of Change” (Training Journal, January 2010), it is important for leaders to address the f...
Usage (application): Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Organizational change is often difficult to achieve because it disturbs the hierarchical structures and the way to accomplish things. For this reason ...
Usage (application): Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives

Leadership Strategies for Change

In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through Change program, in whic...
Usage (application): Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change

Understanding Why Resistance Occurs

The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context ...
Usage (application): Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

In their article "Making Change Happen, and Making It Stick" (published in the online edition of strategy+business, December 20, 2010), Ashley Harshak...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change

What Change Agents Should I Use?

When choosing between internal or external change agents, organizations should consider following advantages and disadvantages of each o...
Usage (application): Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management

The Need to Communicate the REASONS for Change

1072 survey contributors commented on how improve their chances of thriving, by communicating in ways that build trust and engage people. For these co...
Usage (application): Change Management

Critical Leadership Skills

In order to tackle all six stages of concern mentioned by Ken Blanchard in the article “Mastering the Art of Change” (Training Journal, January 2010),...
Usage (application): Tackling the Six Stages of Concern

Role of Recruiting in Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Why is changing an organization culture so difficult? Because, once it is established, a culture has the tendency to strengthen itself, become more ho...
Usage (application): Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change

In their book "Transforming Public and Nonprofit Organization – Stewardship for Leading Change", James Edwin Kee and Kathryn E. Newcomer argue that th...
Usage (application): Leading Change

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Speculand (2009) suggests six mind shifts that people should consider when they're implementing new strategies in organizations. These are outlined an...
Usage (application): Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

If we need to change strategically, we need to think about why, what, when, who and how:
- Why do we want to change? - the constraints imp...
Usage (application): Preparing Strategic Change

The 7C Framework for Successful Personal and Professional Change

In the article 'Managing Yourself: How to Embrace Complex Change", Brimm (2015) provides a framework of seven C’s that can guide one successfully thro...
Usage (application): Personal Change, Professional Change, Personal Transition, Professional Transition, Embracing Change

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized.
An interesting view to s...
Usage (application): Communicating Strategic Change

Recursos - Change Management Iceberg Premium


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Change Resistance


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Change Resistance

Compare com o Change Management Iceberg: Change Model Beckhard  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Forget Borrow Learn  |  Change Phases  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  DICE Framework  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Seven Habits  | Levels of Culture  |  Tipos da cultura  |  RACI

Retorne a o centro de a gerência: Mudança e Organização  |  Comunicações e Habilidades  |  Recursos Humanos  |  Liderança  |  Gerenciamento de Projetos e Programas

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