Change Management Iceberg

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Explanação do Change Management Iceberg de Wilfried Krüger.

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O Change Management Iceberg de Wilfried Krüger é um visualization forte de o que é arguably a essência da mudança nas organizações: tratar das barreiras.


O alto do iceberg

De acordo com Krüger muitas gerente da mudança consideram somente o alto do iceberg: Custo, qualidade e tempo (“Issue Management”).


Abaixo da superfície do iceberg

Entretanto, abaixo da superfície da água há duas mais dimensões da gerência da mudança e da execução:

  • Gerência das percepções e da opinião, e
  • Power e gerência da política

Que tipo das barreiras se levanta, e que tipo de Implementation Management é conseqüentemente needed, depende de:

1. o tipo da mudança

     - riscos justos duros das coisas “somente” (sistemas, processos de informação) a superfície,

     - as coisas macias também (valores, mindsets e potencialidades) são muito mais profundas

2. a estratégia aplicada da mudança

     - mudança revolucionária, dramática como no Business Process Reengineering

     - mudança evolucionária, incremental como em Kaizen


Povos envolvidos na mudança

  • Os oponentes têm uma atitude geral negativa para a mudança E um comportamento negativo para esta mudança pessoal particular. Necessitam ser controlados por Gerência das percepções e da opinião para mudar tão distante quanto possível suas mentes.
  • Os Promoters na uma mão têm uma atitude genérico positiva para a mudança E são positivos sobre esta mudança particular para eles pessoalmente. Fazem exame da vantagem da mudança e suportá-la-ão conseqüentemente.
  • Os oponentes escondidos têm uma atitude genérico negativa para a mudança embora pareçam suportar a mudança em um nível superficial (“Opportunists”). Aqui a gerência das percepções e da opinião suportadas pela informação (gerência da edição) é needed mudar sua atitude.
  • Os Promoters potenciais têm uma atitude positiva genérico para a mudança, porém para determinadas razões não são convencidos (ainda) sobre esta mudança particular. A gerência de Power e da política parece ser apropriada neste caso.

Tratar da mudança

Krüger diz que a gerência geral tem uma tarefa e um desafio permanentes tratar da mudança. Issue Management Superficial pode somente conseguir resultados em um nível consistente com a aceitação que está abaixo da superfície. A base de Change Management é na dimensão interpersonal e behavioral e na dimensão normativa e cultural, e é sujeita à gerência de Power e da política, e à gerência das percepções e da opinião.

mude o iceberg da gerência

Artigo: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Livro: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Livro: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


Change Management Iceberg Grupo de Interesse Especial


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Compare com o Change Management Iceberg: Change Model Beckhard  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Forget Borrow Learn  |  Change Phases  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  DICE Framework  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Seven Habits  | Levels of Culture  |  Tipos da cultura  |  RACI


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