Business Process Reengineering[BPR,业务流程重组]
(BPR[企业流程重组])

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从根本上反思和重新设计业务流程。 Hammer和Champy的Business Process Reengineering[BPR,业务流程重组]解析。

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 Business Process Reengineering[BPR,业务流程重组]Hammer和Champy给企业流程重组(Business Process Reengineering,BPR所下的定义是“从根本上反思和重新设计业务流程,以实现关键绩效如成本、质量、服务和反应速度的突破性进展”。


不同于对企业的某个单一功能领域(如生产、财务、市场)进行组织和绩效考察,Hammer和Champy建议要考察企业的完整业务流程, 从购料到生产,从市场到分销, 通过一整套的业务流程重组来变革企业。
 

以顾客为导向的价值创造是运用BPR的最主要因素,信息技术则是使BPR成为现实的最重要角色。 比较: Relationship Marketing[关系营销]

 

Michael Hammer和James Champy

Michael Hammer和James Champy是BPR的主要拥护者, 在《企业重组》(Reengineering the Corporation)、《重组管理》(Reengineering Management)及《企业行动纲领》(The Agenda)等一系列的著作中,他们认为,大量时间在工作任务从一个部门向另一个部门的传输过程中,被浪费掉了。 他们主张,委任一个专门团队,执行流程中的各个环节的工作任务,会更有效率。


BPR的五个步骤

Davenport(1992)设计了BPR五步模型:

  1. 树立企业愿景,制定流程目标: BPR模型以企业愿景为驱动,以节约成本、节约时间、提高产出和质量为目标。
  2. 辨认有待重新设计的企业流程: 大多数企业运用“高效法”(High-Impact Approach)聚焦最为重要的流程,或是与企业愿景常常发生冲突的流程。 极少一部分些企业运用“穷尽法”(Exhaustive Approach)找出企业的所有流程,然后优先考虑亟待重新设计的流程。
  3. 认识和衡量现有业务流程: 避免重复过去的错误,为将来的改进提供一个底线基准。 比较: Scientific Management[科学管理]
  4. 寻找流程重组的IT技术: 对这一技术要有充分认识,要能够胜任BPR
  5. 设计和建造新流程模型: 不要将此步骤视作BPR五步流程的终点, 而要把它当作一个模型(Prototype),当作一个循环反复过程的新起点, 这一模型(Prototype)把BPR和快速导出结果的目标统一了起来,把顾客的参与和满足统一了起来。

有些情况下,还要执行第六步: 根据重组后的主要流程,相应调整企业结构和管理模型。


影响BPR的一般外部环境

尽管对此提出建议比较困难,但确实存在一些必须要考虑的关键因素:

  • 竞争对手是否明显超过了自己的公司? 比较: Turnaround Management[重建管理]
  • 组织内是否矛盾冲突四起?
  • 公司是否频繁召开会议讨论解决问题?
  • 是否大量使用非结构化的通讯手段? (如备忘录、电子邮件等)
  • 是否有可能采取一种渐进提高的办法? (参见: Kaizen[改善])。

BPR的批评意见

因为重组结果往往是大幅裁员,BPR因此染上恶名。 尽管对BPR的宣传介绍甚嚣尘上(有报道称,为了使《企业重组》登上畅销书榜首,作者自购了不小的数量),从事实来看,BPR并未达到其宣称的效果。 主要原因是:

  • BPR假设企业绩效的制约因素在流程中是无效的, 但实际情况并非总是如此。 同时,BPR也无力证明这一假设。
  • BPR假设绩效改进需要一个全新的炉灶,完全忽视企业现状。
  • BPR[企业流程重组]不提供有效方式集中改善努力于组织的限制。 (如由Goldratt完成在Theory of Constraints[约束理论])。
  • 有时或者可能相当经常,逐渐和增加变动(例如Kaizen[改善])也许是一个更好的方法。
  • BPR是典型的美国人思维方式,具有偏颇性。 (参见: Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度])

BPR与Kaizen的比较

将Kaizen与BPR作比较,很容易发现,Kaizen更人性化,更容易执行,是一个长期过程,变革的步子很小。 与之相反,BPR却是以技术为导向的疾风骤雨式变革,追求彻底变化,需要相当大的变革管理技能。


参考书: Hammer and Champy - Reengineering the Corporation [中译本《改造企业》,台湾牛顿出版公司,1993] -

参考书: Davenport - Process Innovation -


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比较:   Outsourcing[外包]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Catastrophe Theory[突变理论]  |  Organic Organization[有机式组织]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Value Engineering[价值工程]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Six Change Approaches[六变革法]  |  Managing for Value[价值管理]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence[卓越管理的八个属性]  |  Five Disciplines[五项修炼]  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention[企业型政府重塑10原则]  |  Fourteen Points of Management[质量管理14要点]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]


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