Dialectical Enquiry[辩证式探询]
辩证

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总结

辨证式探询法的沿革。

辨证式探询法(Dialectic Inquiry),或称辩证法(Dialectics),有一个很长的历史,在这过程中它的内涵也有所变迁。 中国的传统文化认为,任何事物都有其对立面,即所谓的阴和阳,这一理论可以追溯到3000年前的中国典籍《易经》,以及2500多年前道家鼻祖老子的思想与著述。 道家哲学认为变化是宇宙存在的唯一形态, 并提出了“道生一,一生 二,二生三,三生万物”的从量变到质变的变化思想。 同样是在2500年前左右,古希腊哲学家赫拉克利特认为所有的变化来自对立面的斗争。 中美洲的古代阿兹特克人(Aztecs)也认为,地球是在对立斗争中形成的, 北美洲的拉科塔族(Lakotas)印第安人也认同这一观点。 在柏拉图对话集中,我们注意到,苏格拉底往往是通过盘诘对方的观点来表达自己的主张, 通过这一方法,他能够找出对方观点的内在矛盾冲突。 亚里士多德在比较了辩证法(Dialectics)与修辞法(Rhetoric)之后,说道“辩证法是探寻真理的正道”。 但是,不知由于什么原因,对立统一思想在西方世界消失了很长一段时间,直至工业革命前夕,康德与黑格尔的论著才又使得这一思想重获新生。 最后,费希特通过明确辨析立论、驳论与综合三者之间的关系,在黑格尔外显形式的基础上建立起了内隐三角,这一思想后被马克思和恩格斯所继承和发展。
 

辨证询问辩证什么是辩证? 释义

  • 通过将对立命题并置,从而达到真理的逻辑过程。 辩证是典型的中世纪哲学和神学语汇,后也经常出现在黑格尔与马克思的著作里。
  • 是一个被应用于辩论术的哲学术语,它运用逻辑、推理来证明或反驳某一真理。
  • 通过对立力量的矛盾冲突(悖论)产生变革的思想交流过程。
  • 请参考右侧图片来比较辩证(Dialectics折中(Trade-off)、困境(Dilemma)、疑惑(Puzzle以及平均(Average之间的区别。

辨证式探询的优点

不管是战略、管理,还是商业伦理,都具有复杂性的特征。 辩证法的优势充分体现在应对那些具有内在复杂性的事物以及表面冲突力量。


De Wit和Meyer在《战略:流程、内容、情境》(StrategyProcessContentContext)一书中提到, 在处理战略矛盾和复杂性的时候,运用辩证法较之采取折中、困境、疑惑或平均等方法态度,有如下一些优点:

  1. 可以挖掘探索各种主意;
  2. 有助于聚焦论点(核心观点);
  3. 为跨接表面不可调和的对立体提供了刺激因素;
  4. 为给出创造性的结论提供了刺激因素(找出综合结论,而不是折中结论)。

与辩证法类似的一种方法是魔鬼代言人法(Devil's Advocate Approach, 这种方法在推究那些潜在假设、提高决策质量方面也非常有效,它与辩证法的不同之处在于,这种方法专门质疑别人的观点,更侧重负面,而辩证法则较为平衡,不失和谐。


参考书: Bob de With and Ron Meyer - Strategy: Process, Content, Context

参考书: Alex Lowy and Phil Hood - The Power of the 2x2 Matrix - Using 2x2 Thinking.

参考书: Barry Johnson - Polarity Management: Identifying and Managing Unsolvable Problems

参考书: Charles M. Hampden-Turner, Fons Trompenaars - Building Cross-Cultural Competence.


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