Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]

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通过小组创意活动,产生新点子。 头脑风暴法解析。

目录

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Brainstorming流程头脑风暴法(Brainstorming)是半结构化创造性的小组活动,常见于专门的企业会议,围绕创新或改善,产生新点子,提出新办法。 为了产生尽可能多的点子,小组成员被鼓励就某一具体问题及其解决办法,畅所欲言,提供己见,即便这些主意有可能不会被完全采纳。 头脑风暴法的深层思想是:较之个体之和,群体参与能够达到更高的创造性协同水平。


头脑风暴法的规则。

成功头脑风暴研讨会的三个主要规则:

  1. 参与者被鼓励提出尽可能多的主意,不管这些主意如何的不可思议(头脑风暴会上没有坏主意)。
  2. 在研讨会过程中, 不对任何主意(点子)做积极的或消极的评断。
  3. 鼓励参与者交换相互想法,实现点子的碰撞与组合,将讨论引往意想不到的方向。

头脑风暴法的提示。

组织成功头脑风暴研讨会的要点:

  • 任命一位经验丰富的主持人 (可以考虑组织外部人士)。
  • 指定专人记录下研讨会上产生的所有主意。
  • 运用活动挂图来记录这些主意 (有助于最后阶段对所有主意进行研究和评估)。
  • 明确讨论主题(头脑风暴要围绕这一主题展开)。
  • 争取8-10名参与者, 如果人数过多,则分开讨论,会后将讨论记录进行汇总。
  • 指定专人记下全部会议内容。
  • 分2步对研讨会产生的主意进行评估: A : 定义评估标准; B : 按标准对每个主意进行逐一打分。
  • 研讨会结束前,讨论并确定优选出来的主意的实施方案。 如果它的贯彻执行过程比较复杂,再组织另一个头脑风暴研讨会来讨论它。
  • 阐明研讨会亟待解决的问题,明确讨论中必须遵守的各项原则。
  • 确保研讨会期间对他人主意不做评断, 任何批评都有可能导致小组成员不再畅所欲言, 这势必会抑制小组成员的创造性,有违头脑风暴研讨会自由思想、畅所欲言的本质。
  • 要鼓励在小组成员之间产生一种热情的、无批判的讨论氛围。
  • 要促使每一名小组成员都踊跃发言,包括鼓励那些沉默寡言的人积极贡献主意。
  • 要让所有参与者都能够感受到头脑风暴的乐趣。
  • 要鼓励小组成员提出尽可能多的主意, 既接受中规中矩的实用点子,也欢迎狂放不羁的奇思妙想。
  • 创造性的主意最受欢迎。
  • 避免对某一具体主意或思路展开冗长讨论。
  • 鼓励小组成员对他人提出的主意做进一步阐发,或基于他人主意给出自己独到的新点子。

头脑风暴法的效力。

头脑风暴法在世界范围内被频繁使用,长达70余年,但是对其效用仍有争议。 头脑风暴法能够在短时期内产生大量主意,就此而言,它显然是有效的。 以小组讨论的形式对现实存在的问题进行评估,确是一种有效的问题解决办法。 不过,持相左意见的人士则认为,聪明智慧的个体更容易产生原创的、高质量的主意。


参考书: Michael Michalko - Thinkertoys (A Handbook of Business Creativity) [中译本《思考的玩具:商业创新手册》,新华出版社,2003年] -

参考书: Jason Rich - Brain Storm: Tap into Your Creativity to Generate Awesome Ideas and Remarkable Results -


头脑风暴法 小组


小组 (40名成员)


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比较:  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]  |  Mind Mapping[心智图法]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Game Theory[博奕论]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Dialectical Inquiry[辩证探询法]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Theory of Constraints[约束理论]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Catalytic Mechanisms[催化机制]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Pyramid Principle[金字塔原则]  |  Value Engineering[价值工程]


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