Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]
(de Bono)

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探索思考问题的不同角度和方法。 Edward de Bono的Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]解析。

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Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽] - De Bono Edward de Bono提出的六项思考帽是一个全面思考问题的模型,用以帮助人们面对复杂情境或挑战时,采取不同的思考角度和方法。 在制定战略和进行决策的场合,往往要求多角度考虑问题。


六项思考帽技术能够帮助我们个人改变传统因循的思考方式,有意地去探索一些全新的思考角度。 人们通过戴上一定特殊的思考帽,扮演一个特定的角色,就“好像”他们自己就是这个角色,就像角色所要求的一样在思考。 例如,为了讨论的需要,某个人可能扮演一个吹毛求疵的角色, 这个角色要求故意找茬挑刺,提出对其他意见的不同看法, 也即总是采取一种批评的态度,找出其他观点错误的地方。

每顶帽子颜色各异,并被赋以不同的思考模型。 例如黑帽子代表逻辑与批判,戴上黑帽子的人就要采取批评的思考态度。


六项思考帽及其思维模式

  • 白帽(资料与信息):白皮书, 中立, 集中于提供信息、客观事实,他人所需要的以及如何获取。

  • 红帽(直觉与感情):火热,温暖, 富有情感,全凭直觉, 提供不做辩解的观点。

  • 黑帽(逻辑与批判):苛于他人观点, 好做判断、 批评, 认为他人观点总是错的, 消极逻辑观。

  • 黄帽(积极与乐观):充满阳光, 乐观向上, 积极逻辑观, 总是寻找好的一面。

  • 绿帽(创新与冒险):植物的生命的颜色, 创造性思维, 积极假设并探索可能性, 酝酿新主意。

  • 蓝帽(系统与控制):天空的颜色, 给人以凉爽的感觉, 提供信息概要, 执行对流程、步骤以及对其他思考帽的控制功能, 领袖和组织者, 关于思考的思考。

De Bono的六项思考帽既考虑到情绪状态,也有心智结构的考量(如,考虑问题的角度)。 De Bono认为, “情感是我们思维能力的一项重要组成部分,而不是象有些人认为的,情感影响了我们的正常思维”(1985年, p27)。 没有哪一项思考模式(或思考帽)天生就比其他的要好。 一个完备的、平衡的团队才会真正意识到,在处理问题和面对挑战的时候,他们确实需要各个不同的视角和思维模式(思考帽)。


六项思考帽的主要优点

  1. 畅所欲言,没有风险。 有效抵制Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]
  2. 产生综合观点。
  3. 便于操作。
  4. 有明确的规则可以遵循。
  5. 关注于思考。
  6. 激发创造性思维。
  7. 改进沟通
  8. 改进决策。

六项思考帽的运用

在多数团队中,团队成员被迫接受团队既定的思维模式,不管是积极的,还是消极的,或者中立的,多少会让团队成员感到不舒服。 这就限制了个人乃至整个团队的配合度,导致不能够有效解决某个既定问题。 运用六项思考帽模型,团队成员不再局限于某个单一思维模式, 而且,思考帽代表的是角色分类,是一种思考要求,而不是代表扮演者本人。 思考帽的最终目的是指导和帮助思考,而不是在于区分思维模式或者思考者的类别上。 事实上,通过戴上思考帽,运用迥异的思维模式去思考问题,团队成员往往会有新的发现。 戴上思考帽,就意味着团队成员必须采取一种特定的思维模式,而这种模式当然没有必要是他们通常的思考方法。 每一个团队成员,都要对以上要点有充分认识, 在活动过程中,他的思考和发言都要能够与他所戴的思考帽保持一致。 戴上思考帽还有一个好处,就是能够将自我与表现相分离, 所以这也就有利于个人运用六项思考帽法来思考问题。


六项思考帽法的典型步骤。 流程

取决于亟待解决的具体问题,六项思考帽可以按照结构化的次序放置。 以下是一个典型的六项思考帽小组的工作流程:

步骤1: 陈述问题事实(白帽)
步骤2: 提出如何解决问题的建议(绿帽)
步骤3: 评估建议的优缺点——列举优点(黄帽)、列举缺点(黑帽)
步骤4: 对各项选择方案进行直觉判断(红帽)
步骤5: 总结陈述,得出方案,解散团队(蓝帽)
 


六项思考帽 小组


小组 (10名成员)


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