Disruptive Innovation
(Christensen)

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Resumo

Inovação disruptiva de Clayton Christensen

Que é Disruptive Innovation? Descrição

O modelo de Disruptive Innovation de Clayton Christensen é uma teoria que possa ser usada descrevendo o impacto de tecnologias novas (mudança revolucionária) na existência de uma empresa. Clayton Christensen inventou primeiramente tecnologias “disruptivas” da frase em 1997, no seu livro “o Dilemma do Innovator: Quando as tecnologias novas fizerem com que as empresa grandes falhem”.
Mostrou que essa vez e outra vez quase todas as organizações que têm “morreram” ou deslocado de suas indústrias (por causa de um paradigm novo do cliente que oferece) poderiam ver o rompimento vir, mas não fariam nada até que estêve demasiado atrasado.


Fazendo que companhias boas são supostas fazer - cater a seus clientes e investimentos mais rentáveis do foco onde as margens de lucro são as mais atrativas - os líderes de indústria estabelecidos estão em um trajeto de inovações sustentando e para deixar-se abertos para que as tecnologias disruptivas enterrem-nas. Isto acontece porque os processos do alocamento de recurso de companhias estabelecidas são projetados maximize lucros através das inovações sustentando, que envolvem essencialmente projetar mousetraps melhores e melhores para clientes existentes ou segmentos de mercado provados. Quando as inovações disruptivas (tipicamente mais barato, mais simples usar versões dos produtos existentes que o objetivo baixo-termina ou clientes inteiramente novos) emergem, as companhias estabelecidas estão paralizadas. Quase sempre motivated para ir acima-mercado melhor que para defender estes novos ou baixo-terminam mercados, e finalmente a inovação disruptiva melhora, rouba mais parte de mercado, e substitui o produto reinando.


Tipos de inovação

As companhias têm duas opções básicas quando procuram construir negócios do novo-crescimento. Podem tentar fazer exame de um mercado existente de um concorrente entrenched com inovações sustentando. Ou podem tentar fazer exame em um concorrente com inovações disruptivas que criar mercados novos ou faça exame da raiz entre os clientes os mais maus de um encarregado.

Há dois tipos distintos de inovações disruptivas. O primeiro tipo cria um mercado novo alvejando non-consumidores. O segundo compete na extremidade baixa de um mercado estabelecido.
 

Origem do modelo de Disruptive Innovation. História

Pesquisa e estudos de Christensen em Harvard.


Uso do método de Disruptive Innovation. Aplicações

  • Todos os tipos das companhias - como podem ser impactados pela inovação/mudança da tecnologia.

Etapas em Disruptive Innovation. Processo

  • O modelo mostra que, como o performance exijiu pelos clientes de aumentos existentes de um mercado sobre o tempo, assim que faz o performance fornecido dentro de um paradigm tecnologico. Frequentemente a melhoria do performance fornecida tem um trajectory diferente ao trajectory da melhoria do performance exijido pelos clientes (veja a figura). Quando as inclinações do trajectory diferem, e o performance fornecido excede o performance exijido, as tecnologias novas que eram somente performance do competidor em niches de mercado remotos podem migrar em outras redes do cliente. Isto fornece innovators com um veículo aos clientes novos, que veriam previamente seus offerings como substandard; e permite-os de oferecer estabeleceu mercados do mainstream um jogo novo dos atributos do valor do performance que são agora mais relevantes do que o paradigm atual.
  • O rompimento e o commoditization vão realmente em conjunto. Uma companhia que overshoots, simplesmente não pode ganhar (uma empresa que melhore um produto ao ponto que é mais do que bom bastante para que os clientes usem e paguem um prêmio por). Ou o rompimento roubará seus mercados, ou o commoditization roubará seus lucros. Quando as ondas novas do rompimento se lavarem sobre uma indústria, o lugar onde o dinheiro estará deslocará através da corrente de valor sobre o tempo. Quando isto acontecer, as companhias que se posicionam em um ponto na corrente de valor onde o performance não é ainda bom bastante capturarão o lucro.

Limitações de Disruptive Innovation. Desvantagens

  • Disruptive Innovation requer um processo separado da estratégia. Este processo deve ser emergente e focalizado em oportunidades unanticipated, problemas e sucessos, melhor que pretendido e focalizado na compreensão melhorada de o que trabalham e de o que não.
  • Em vez de projetar os produtos e os serviços que se dirigem ao comportamento atual de clientes atuais, os alvos subjacentes dos povos devem informar o projeto das inovações. Compreendendo que necessidade dos povos realmente é entretanto longe de fácil.
  • Os negócios disruptivos não podem conseguir os lucros grandes muito rápidos, venceu a sua natureza (que se dirige a mercados novos, ou se dirigindo à extremidade baixa de mercados existentes). Os capitalistas de risco são cada vez mais impatient para que os negócios entreguem lucros.

Suposições de Disruptive Innovation. Circunstâncias

Morte do risco das companhias com as decisões para ignorar as tecnologias que não parecem se dirigir a suas necessidades de clientes, como se tornarem fatais quando o trajectories dois paradigmatic do progresso interativo.


Livro: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

Livro: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

Livro: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next 


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