Innovazione Sconvolgente (Disruptive Innovation) (Christensen)

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Contribuito da: Neusa Hirota


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Innovazione disgregativa di Clayton Christensen

Che cosa è la Innovazione Sconvolgente? Descrizione

Il modello di Disruptive Innovation di Clayton Christensen è una teoria che può essere usata per descrivere l'effetto delle nuove tecnologie (cambiamento rivoluzionario) sull'esistenza di una azienda. Clayton Christensen in primo luogo ha coniato tecnologie “disgregative„ di frase in 1997, in The Innovator's Dilemma di suo libro “: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail„.
Egli ha dimostrato che ripetutamente quasi tutte le organizzazioni che “sono morte„ o sono state rimosse dai loro settori (a causa di nuovo paradigma dell'offerta al cliente) avrebbero visto avvicinarsi la distruzione, ma non hanno fatto niente fino a che non fosse troppo tardi.


Facendo quello che le buone aziende devono fare - approvvigionarsi i clienti più redditizii e focalizzare gli investimenti laddove i margini di profitto sono più attrattivi - i leaders di settore vanno verso un percorso di Innovazioni Sostenibili e rimangono aperti affinchè le tecnologie sconvolgenti li seppelliscono. Ciò accade perché i processi di allocazione delle risorse delle aziende istituite sono designati per massimizzare i profitti con innovazioni sostenibili, che essenzialmente comportano la progettazione di sempre migliori trappole per i clienti esistenti o per comprovati segmenti di mercato. Quando le Disruptive Innovation (in genere versioni di prodotti esistenti meno costose e più semplice da usare che hanno come target clienti interamente nuovi) emergono, le aziende istituite si paralizzano. Esse sono quasi sempre spinte a servire le fascie più alte del mercato piuttosto che difendere questi nuovi mercati ed alla fine le innovazione sconvolgenti migliorano, rubano quote di mercato e sostituiscono il prodotto che prima regnava.


Tipi di innovazioni

Le aziende hanno due opzioni nel cercare di costruire nuove crescite per i business. Possono provare a prendere un mercato esistente da un concorrente radicato con innovazioni sostenibili. O possono provare a sopraffare un concorrente con Disruptive Innovation che creano nuovi mercati o si accaparrano i clienti peggiori.

Ci sono due tipi distinti di innovazioni disgregative. Il primo tipo crea un nuovo mercato mirando ai non consumatori. Il secondo compete nell'estremità inferiore di un mercato stabilito.
 

Origine del modello di Disruptive Innovation. Storia

 Ricerca e studi ad Harvard di Christensen.


Uso del metodo di Innovazione Sconvolgente. Applicazioni

  • Tutti i generi di aziende -  dal momento che tutti possono subire un effetto dall'innovazione/cambiamento di tecnologia.

Fasi in Disruptive Innovation. Processo

  • Il modello mostra che le performance richieste dai clienti di un mercato esistente aumentano col tempo, e allo stesso modo le performance fornite con un paradigma tecnologico. Il miglioramento delle performance ha spesso una traiettoria differente dalla traiettoria di miglioramento delle performance richiesta dai clienti (si veda la figura). Quando la pendenza delle traiettorie differisce e le performance fornite eccedono le performance richieste, le nuove tecnologie che erano soltanto performance competitive in nicchie di mercato remote possono migrare verso altre reti di clienti. Ciò fornisce agli innovatori un veicolo per raggiungere nuovi clienti, che precedentemente vedevano le loro offerte come inferiori alla media; e permette loro di offrire ai flussi principali del mercato un nuovo insieme di attributi delle performance che diventano più importanti dell' attuale paradigma.
  • La rottura e la commoditization vanno di pari passo. Un'azienda che oltrepassa, non può vincere semplicemente (un'azienda che migliora un prodotto al punto che diventa più che buono per i clienti e giustifica un premium price). O lo sconvolgimento ruberà i suoi mercati, o la commoditization ruberà i suoi profitti. Mentre le nuove onde di sconvolgimento si riversano su di un settore, il posto in cui si troveranno i soldi si sposterà nella catena del valore nel tempo. Mentre questo accade, le aziende che si posizionano in un posto della catena del valore in cui le performance non sono ancora abbastanza buone cattureranno il profitto.

Limitazioni di Innovazione Sconvolgente. Svantaggi

  • L'Innovazione Sconvolgente richiede un processo di strategia separato. Questo processo deve essere emergente e concentrato sulle opportunità impreviste, i problemi ed i successi, piuttosto che progettato e concentrato sulla comprensione migliorata di cosa funziona e cosa no.
  • Invece di progettare prodotti e servizi indrizzati all'attuale comportamento dei clienti esistenti, glihe  obiettivi di fondo della gente dovrebbero servire per informare il design delle innovazioni. Capire quello di cui la gente ha relmente bisogno è molto difficile.
  • I Business sconvolgenti non possono realizzare enormi profitti molto velocemente, a causa della loro natura (mirare a nuovi mercati, o alle estremità inferiori dei mercati esistenti). I capitalisti di impresa sono sempre più impazienti verso i profitti di un business.

Presupposti di Disruptive Innovation. Circostanze

 Le aziende rischiano la morte con decisioni che ignorano le tecnologie che non sembrano rispondere ai bisogni dei loro clienti, che diventano mortali quando due traiettoria paradigmatica di un progresso interagiscono.


Referenza Bibliografica: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

Referenza Bibliografica: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

Referenza Bibliografica: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next 


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