Zerstörende Innovation (Disruptive Technologie)
Christensen

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Zusammenfassung

Clayton Christensen zerstörende Innovation

Was ist Zerstörende Innovation? Beschreibung

Das Zerstörende Innovation-Modell von Clayton Christensen ist eine Theorie, die für das Beschreiben der Auswirkung neuer Technologien (revolutionäre Änderung) auf die Existenz eines Unternehmens verwendet werden kann. Clayton Christensen prägte zuerst die Phrase „zerstörende Technologien“ 1997, in seinem Buch „The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail".
Er zeigte, dass fast alle Organisationen, die „gestorben“ oder aus ihren Industrien verdrängt wurden (wegen eines neuen Paradigmas des Anbietens an die Kunden) die Zerrüttung kommen sehen konnten, aber nichts taten, bis es zu spät war.


Indem sie taten, was von guten Firmen erwartet wird - für ihre rentabelsten Kunden zu sorgen und Investitionen zu fokussieren, wo Gewinnmargen am attraktivsten sind - sind etablierte Industrieführer auf einem Weg des Stärkens von Innovationen und halten sich selbst für zerstörende Technologien offen, um sie zu begraben. Dieses geschieht, weil die Prozesse der Bereitstellung von Produktionsmitteln der etablierten Firmen entworfen sind, um Gewinne durch das Stärken von Innovationen zu maximieren, die im wesentlichen das Entwerfen von immer besser werdenden Mausefallen für vorhandene Kunden oder bewährte Marktsegmente einbeziehen. Wenn zerstörende Innovationen (gewöhnlich preiswertere, einfacher zu verwendene Versionen von vorhandenen Produkten, die auf das untere Marktsegment oder auf völlig neue Kunden zielen) auftauchen, sind etablierte Firmen gelähmt. Sie sind fast immer motiviert in das obere Marktsegment zu gehen anstatt diese neuen Märkte oder das untere Marktsegment zu verteidigen, und schließlich verbessert sich die zerstörende Innovation, stiehlt mehr Marktanteil und ersetzt das führende Produkt.


Arten der Innovation

Firmen haben zwei grundlegende Optionen, wenn sie versuchen, neue Wachstumgsgeschäfte zu errichten. Sie können versuchen, einen vorhandenen Markt von einem fest verwurzelten Konkurrenten mit dem Stärken von Innovationen einzunehmen. Oder sie können versuchen, auf einen Konkurrenten mit zerstörenden Innovationen einzuwirken, was entweder neue Absatzmärkte schafft oder bei den schlechtesten Kunden eines Amtsinhabers wurzeln schlägt.

Es gibt zwei eindeutige Arten zerstörender Innovationen. Die erste Art schafft einen neuen Absatzmarkt, indem man auf Nichtverbraucher zielt. Die zweite Art konkurriert am unteren Ende eines etablierten Marktes.
 

Ursprung der Zerstörende Innovation-Modells. Geschichte

Forschung und Studien Christensens in Harvard.


Gebrauch der Zerstörende Innovation-Methode. Anwendungen

  • Alle Arten von Firmen - die durch Technologieinnovation/-änderung beeinflusst werden können.

Schritte in der Zerstörende Innovation. Prozess

  • Das Modell zeigt, dass, während sich die Leistung, die von den Kunden eines vorhandenen Marktes verlangt wird, über die Zeit erhöht, sich auch die Leistung erhöht, die innerhalb eines technologischen Paradigmas bereitgestellt wird. Häufig hat die Leistungverbesserung, die bereitgestellt wird, eine andere Flugbahn als die Flugbahn der Leistungverbesserung, die von den Kunden verlangt wird (sehen Sie die Abbildung). Wenn die Flugbahnsteigungen sich unterscheiden und die Leistung, die bereitgestellt wird, die verlangte Leistung übersteigt, können neue Technologien, die nur in abgelegenen Marktnischen Leistungs konkurrierend waren, in andere Kundennetzwerke abwandern. Dieses versieht Innovatoren mit einem Vehikel zu neuen Kunden, die vorher ihre Angebote als unter der Norm entsprechend angesehen haben würden. und ermöglicht ihnen, etablierten Mainstream-Märkten einen neuen Satz Leistungswertattribute anzubieten, die jetzt relevanter als das gegenwärtige Paradigma sind.
  • Zerrüttung und Commoditization gehen tatsächlich Hand in Hand. Eine Firma, die übertreibt, kann einfach nicht gewinnen (ein Unternehmen, das ein Produkt zu dem Punkt verbessert, dass es mehr als gut genug ist, damit Kunden einen Aufpreis für das Verwenden zahlen). Entweder wird Zerrüttung seine Märkte stehlen, oder Commoditization wird seine Gewinne stehlen. Während neue Wellen der Zerrüttung über eine Industrie hinweg rollen, wird sich der Platz in der Wertkette über die Zeit verschieben, in dem Geld zu holen ist. Während dieses geschieht, werden Firmen, die sich an einem Punkt in der Wertkette positionieren, an dem die Leistung noch nicht gut genug ist, Gewinne erzielen.

Einschränkungen der Zerstörende Innovation. Nachteile

  • Zerstörende Innovation erfordert einen separaten Strategieprozess. Dieser Prozess muss wachsend und konzentriert sein auf unvorhergesehene Möglichkeiten, Probleme und Erfolge, anstatt auf verbessertes Verständnis, von dem was arbeitet und von dem was nicht arbeitet, beabsichtigt und konzentriert zu sein.
  • Anstatt Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu entwerfen, die gegenwärtiges Verhalten der gegenwärtigen Kunden adressieren, sollten die zugrundeliegenden Ziele der Leute das Design von Innovationen beraten. Zu verstehen, was Leute wirklich benötigen, ist jedoch nicht sehr einfach.
  • Zerstörende Geschäfte können große Gewinne nicht sehr schnell erzielen, aufgrund ihrer Natur (Adressieren neuer Absatzmärkte oder adressieren vom unteren Ende vorhandener Märkte). Wagniskapitalgeber sind in zunehmendem Maße ungeduldig, damit Geschäfte Gewinne liefern.

Annahmen der Zerstörende Innovation. Bedingungen

Firmen riskieren den Tod mit Entscheidungen neue Technologien zu ignorieren, die nicht scheinen, die Bedürfnisse ihrer Kunden zu adressieren, da diese fatal werden, wenn zwei paradigmatische Flugbahnen des Fortschritts interagieren.


Buch: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

Buch: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

Buch: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next 


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