Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie)
(Christensen)

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Samenvatting

De vernietigende innovatie van Clayton Christensen

Wat is Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie)? Beschrijving

Het Disruptive Innovation-model van Clayton Christensen is een theorie die kan worden gebruikt voor het beschrijven van het effect van nieuwe technologieŽn (revolutionaire verandering) op het bestaan van een onderneming. Clayton Christensen vond de uitdrukking Ąontwrichtende technologieŽnď voor het eerst uit in 1997, in zijn boek ĄThe Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail".
Hij toonde aan dat telkens weer bijna alle organisaties die Ązijn gestorvenď of verplaatst van hun industrieŽn (wegens een nieuw paradigma van aanbod voor de klant) de verstoring komst konden zien, maar deed niets tot het te laat was.


Door te doen wat goede bedrijven moeten doen - zich richten op de meest winstgevende klanten en hun investeringen focussen daar waar de winstmarges het aantrekkelijkst zijn - zijn de gevestigde industrieleiders op een weg van Ondersteunende Innovaties (Sustaining Innovations) en zijn zij kwetsbaar voor ontwrichtende technologieŽn om hen te begraven. Dit gebeurt omdat de middeltoewijzingsprocessen van gevestigde bedrijven worden ontworpen om winsten te maximaliseren door ondersteunende innovaties, welke hoofdzakelijk het ontwerpen van betere en betere muizenvallen voor bestaande klanten of bewezen marktsegmenten impliceren. Wanneer Ontwrichtende Innovaties opkomen (typisch goedkoper, versies van bestaande producten die eenvoudiger zijn te gebruiken en welke zich richten op de minder gunstige klanten of volledig nieuwe klanten), zijn de gevestigde bedrijven verlamd. Zij zijn bijna altijd eerder gemotiveerd om naar de bovenkant van de markt te gaan dan om deze nieuwe of bodemmarkten te verdedigen, en uiteindelijk verbetert het ontwrichtende innovatieproces zich, steelt meer marktaandeel, en vervangt het regerende product.


Soorten Innovatie

Bedrijven hebben twee basisopties wanneer zij tot doel hebben om de nieuwe groeiondernemingen te bouwen. Zij kunnen proberen om een bestaande markt van een verschanste concurrent af te pakken met behulp van ondersteunende innovaties. Oftewel zij kunnen proberen om een concurrent met behulp van Ontwrichtende Innovaties aan te pakken welke oftewel nieuwe markten creŽren oftewel een plaats veroveren onder de slechtste klanten van een gevestigde speler.

Er zijn twee verschillende soorten Ontwrichtende Innovaties. Het eerste type creŽert een nieuwe markt door zich op niet-consumenten te richten. De tweede concurreert in de onderkant van een bestaande markt.
 

Oorsprong van het Disruptive Innovation model. Geschiedenis

Onderzoek van Christensen en studies in Harvard.


Gebruik van de Disruptive Innovation methode. Toepassingen

  • Allerlei bedrijven - aangezien zij door technologie-innovatie/verandering kunnen worden beÔnvloed.

Stappen in Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie). Proces

  • Het model toont aan dat als de prestatie, welke door de klanten in een bestaande markt wordt geŽist, in de tijd toeneemt, dan ook de prestatie toeneemt die binnen een technologisch paradigma wordt geboden. Vaak heeft de geboden prestatieverbetering een verschillende baan van de baan van prestatieverbetering welke door de klanten wordt geŽist (zie figuur). Als de baanhellingen verschillen, en de geboden prestatie de geŽiste prestatie overschrijdt, kunnen nieuwe technologieŽn die alleen maar concurrerend waren in in verre marktniches migreren naar andere klantennetwerken. Dit voorziet vernieuwers van een vervoermiddel naar nieuwe klanten, die van te voren hun dienstenaanbod als beneden de maat zouden hebben bekeken; en laat hen toe om in gevestigde mainstream markten een nieuwe set prestatie waarde attributen te bieden die nu relevanter zijn dan het huidige paradigma.
  • De verstoring en de commoditisatie gaan in feite hand in hand. Een bedrijf dat teveel biedt, kan eenvoudigweg niet†winnen (een bedrijf dat een product tot een punt verbetert waarbij het voor klanten meer dan goed†genoeg is en waarvoor een premie†betaald moet worden). Oftewel de ontwrichting zal zijn markten stelen, oftewel de commoditisatie zal zijn winsten stelen. Terwijl nieuwe golven van ontwrichting over de industrie walsen, zal de plaats waar het geld zal zitten over de waardeketen naarmate de tijd verstrijkt verschuiven. Terwijl dit gebeurt, zullen bedrijven die zich een plaats in de waardeketen hebben verworven waar de prestatie nog niet goed genoeg is de winst pakken.

Beperkingen van Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie). Nadelen

  • Ontwrichtende Innovatie vereist een afzonderlijk strategieproces. Dit proces moet emergent zijn (d.w.z. zich geleidelijk ontwikkelend)  en geconcentreerd zijn op niet voorziene kansen, problemen en successen, in plaats van gepland en gericht op een beter begrip van wat werkt en wat niet.
  • In plaats van het ontwerpen van producten en diensten die het huidige gedrag van de huidige klanten adresseren, zouden de onderliggende doelstellingen van mensen het ontwerp van innovaties moeten aansturen. Maar te begrijpen†wat mensen werkelijk nodig hebben is verre van gemakkelijk.
  • Ontwrichtende bedrijven kunnen niet zeer snel grote winsten maken, als gevolg van hun aard (gericht op nieuwe markten, of gericht op de onderste regionen van bestaande markten). De verschaffers van risicokapitaal zijn steeds ongeduldiger jegens ondernemingen om winst te maken.

Veronderstellingen van Disruptive Innovation. Voorwaarden

Bedrijven riskeren de dood met besluiten om technologieŽn te negeren die niet de behoeften van hun klanten schijnen te adresseren, omdat deze fataal uitpakken als twee paradigmatische banen van vooruitgang op elkaar inwerken.


Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next†


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Forum over Disruptieve Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie).


Disruptive Change and HR
Innovation is necessary and mandatory for a firm to be competitive in the current operating business environment. Howev (...)
14
 
1 reacties
WHAT is Being Innovated? The 4 Ps of Innovation
There are actually 4 things or objects that one can innovate:
9
 
Timing is Important to Make an Innovative Idea Disruptive
America had to be discovered more than once, until it really had been discovered. The Apple Newton was a superior answer (...)
8
 
10 reacties
Leadership and Taking Action
Don't forget the important point of taking action after all the theorising! Sometimes I think it's more down to the lead (...)
8
 
Asymmetric Innovation
Asymmetric Innovation = Asymmetric Situation + Customer Value.
Asymmetric Situation is a resulting none-direct-comp (...)
7
 
Innovation Ideas in Economic Slowdowns
Innovation has always been the hallmark of doing good business. A lot of products that we enjoy today that were develope (...)
6
 
4 reacties
Disruptive Innovation or Improved Technology?
Disruptive innovation is only a means of improving existing products as it creates new, better and unexpected sets of va (...)
5
 
2 reacties
Slow Innovation: PROs, CONs and Tips
When we talk about innovation, we often associate it with disruptive innovation efforts / large-scale processes that cha (...)
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Business Model Innovation
Dear all fans of Clay!
IPTV is probably and most likely a disruptive technology, but more important, is it feasible (...)
5
 
Disruptive Innovation and Public Sector Organisations
This model appears to describe the potential life cycle of a firm in market economies where profit maximisation is the g (...)
4
 
9 reacties
Paradigmatic Changes Require Re-orientation of Ones World Views
So often there are changes which are semantic. My view is that paradigmatic changes require re-orientation of ones worl (...)
4
 
1 reacties
Is Value Innovation Disruptive Innovation?
Should value innovation, the corner stone of Blue Ocean Strategy be considered disruptive innovation? (...)
4
 
7 reacties
Blue/Innovate and Red/Disrupt
An interesting exercise is to work through a product's feature set using both the Strategy Map of "Blue Ocean Strategy" (...)
4
 
Comparison Disruptive Innovation versus Blue Ocean Strategy
Is Disruptive Innovation a liitle more detail of Blue Ocean Strategy??
If not whats the difference between the two? (...)
4
 
3 reacties
Leadership Skills / Approaches for Successful Innovation
Innovation leadership requires other approaches than general leadership for the core business. Furr and Dyer (2014) outl (...)
4
 
34 reacties
A Disruptive Innovation Questions what we Don't Know
It's hard to change. This holds for organisations and people. A disruptive innovation questions what we know and exposes (...)
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Disruptive Innovation: What Causes the Creative Leap?
What causes the difference in magnitude of creative leap? One may create a quantum leap, but other innovations may not b (...)
4
 
16 reacties
The Resources-Processes-Values (RPV) Framework
The resources-processes-values (RPV) framework is a useful tool to understand why big companies fail in responding to di (...)
4
 
1 reacties
The Word 'Disruptive' in Disruptive Innovation
I wonder if the term 'disruptive' is in fact the appropriate word.
If it's agreed that it means: unexpected, large (...)
3
 
2 reacties
Better Input from Consumers Needed for Disruptive Innovation
Technological innovations bring positivity, a better quality of life. But have they considered those without access to n (...)
3
 
2 reacties
What is Disruptive Innovation Exactly? Definition
A "definition" of Disruptive Innovation that's frequently quoted is one which is located on Christensen's website. It re (...)
3
 
5 reacties
Are Clayton Christensenís Disruptive Innovation Characteristics Useful in Practice?
A recent write up published in MIT Sloan Management Review concludes that Disruptive Innovation theory is "not very usef (...)
3
 
Leapfrogging Technologies by Developing Countries
Leapfrogging is a way for developing countries to benefit from earlier skills and advancements of the developed world by (...)
3
 
Is Disruptive Innovation Radical?
Disruptive Innovation is often incorrectly described as a radical rather than incremental change in technology. In fact, (...)
2
 
6 reacties
Distinguishing Three Types of Innovation
Christensen (2014) argues that investing in different types of innovation will influence markets and firms in different (...)
2
 
2 reacties
Breakthrough versus Disruptive Innovation
Breakthrough versus Disruptive Innovation - what's the difference? Is there a difference, necessarily? (...)
1
 
1 reacties

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Innovation Strategy: The Three Horizons of Growth (McKinsey)
One of ways of thinking about innovation strategy is to use the 3 Horizons of Growth developed by Steve Coley at McKinse (...)
56
 
52 reacties

Disruptive versus Incremental Innovation
Typically, Incremental Innovation exploits existing forms or technologies... Improves upon something that already exists (...)
27
 
13 reacties

Disruptive Innovation: Product versus Platform
DISRUPTIVE PLATFORMS often have a bigger impact than disruptive products. Some examples:
Uber owns no vehicle, (...)
25
 
14 reacties

The Jobs to be Done Approach (JTBD) and Disruptive Innovation
BACKGROUND
The theory of disruptive innovation helps companies navigate threats coming from their external environm (...)
23
 
10 reacties

Strategic Options for Old-Technology Firms
What should be the strategic response of old-technology firms when a promising new technology shows up? Typically firms (...)
22
 
7 reacties

Impact of the New Technology
Our countries are not concerned by this issue because not developed. We are only getting negative impacts due to this te (...)
20
 
1 reacties

Tips for Innovation Strategy
As a part of corporate success factor development process, we have found a need to build up an "Innovation Strategy". Ca (...)
20
 
10 reacties

Typical Disruptive Technologies
It is important that business and policy leaders understand which technologies might matter to them and prepare accordin (...)
16
 
How to Develop Disruptive Innovation Skills?
I believe disruptive innovation skills can be mostly taught.
Beyond the associative skills which is cognitive, the (...)
15
 
4 reacties

Diversity of Perspective is Key to Disruptive Innovation
ďAll new ideas are combinations of old ideas, but not all idea combinations are created equal,Ē writes Frans Johannsen.< (...)
14
 
9 reacties

How to Find Innovative Ideas? From Analogous Markets...
When trying to find innovative ideas for your organization, several studies have revealed that it is highly valuable to (...)
11
 
3 reacties

How to Sustain Disruptive Innovation?
After gaining entry into some (new) market segment through disruptive innovation, how do you SUSTAIN your position and g (...)
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26 reacties

Ways to Incorporate Disruptive Innovation as Part of the Management Agenda
A few days ago I was in a conversation with Adam Hartung, who observed brand managers are constrained, as a matter of pr (...)
7
 
14 reacties

Is Cirque du Soleil the iPhone or the Seiko of Circus?
An article about the Cirque du Soleil I recently read made me wonder whether we should think of Cirque du Soleil as the (...)
7
 
6 reacties

The Hybrid Innovation Approach to Manage Technological Disruptions
Companies need to carefully think about the timing and way to adopt technological disruptions. Adopting technological di (...)
5
 
5 reacties

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Innovation Pitfalls

Avoiding Innovation Traps
Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006): 1. S (...)

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and fr (...)

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
In his book ďProduct Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New ProductsĒ, Robert Cooper suggests following ten way (...)

Challenging the Existing Strategic Logic

Finding New Markets
A tool by Kim and Mauborgne is the "Four Actions Framework". This Four Actions Framework can be used to challenge the ex (...)

The Simple-Cheap-Convenient Approach

Addressing the Unmet Needs of Customers
Based on Christensenís model of disruptive innovation, Norton and Pine argue that experience innovation can effectively (...)

Distinguish Disruptive Technology Innovation From Disruptive Marketing Innovation!

2 Distinct Capabilities...
It is necessary to distinguish between disruptive technology innovation and disruptive marketing innovation, since ther (...)

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. E (...)

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why? Because the Internet, wireless devices such as m (...)

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the las (...)

How to Think Differently in Innovation?

How to Be Innovative, Innovative Thinking
Strategy is always related with risk, due to market volatility. Also todayīs volatility is increasing very fast. So inno (...)

How to Lead an Innovation Team

Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strate (...)

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

Fundamental Innovation
When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of (...)

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
Since 50 years, the Pentagonís Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing a (...)

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide info (...)

Classes of Innovation | Sources of Innovation

Innovation, Creativity, Organizational Innovativeness, Lateral Thinking, Out of the Box Thinking, Blue Ocean Strategy
TWO CLASSES OF INNOVATION Innovation can be triggered or enabled by two broad classes: KNOWLEDGE PUSH: Innovation trig (...)

Why Large Firms are Having Difficulties to Deal with Disruptive Innovations

Innovation Management
Christensen explains why many firms, especially large firms, have trouble with adapting and thus with surviving when dea (...)

Big-Bang Disruption

Technological Innovation
BBD is a term coined by Accenture gurus Larry Drownes and Paul F. Numes. Technological innovation lately started out fr (...)

What Makes a Company Innovative?

Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
A futurethink 2006 Innovation Tracker Survey mentions: - Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovat (...)

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

(Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabi (...)

Predecessor of Christensen

Technology-driven Change Theory
The theory of Disruptive Innovation was actually not created by Christensen. It was described by Thomas Hugues, MIT Pres (...)

How BOP Countries Can Disrupt Western Markets

Disruptive Innovation, Bottom of the Pyramid, Country-level Strategy
After the Second World War, Japan started to develop fast as a result of their disruptive innovation strategy. This disr (...)

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through Iterative Rapid-cycle Prototyping

Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the (...)

Misunderstandings on the Concept of Disruptive Innovations

Technology Innovation
In their paper ďA Reflective Review of Disruptive Innovation TheoryĒ, the authors mention three misunderstandings on the (...)

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Adoption of New Technologies
Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote ďStructure of Scientific RevolutionsĒ, in which he suggested that the entrenched interes (...)

Geographic Dimension to Explain Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries

Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries
In the past, it was generally thought that the Western countries were the main sources of innovation while developing co (...)
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Asymmetric Innovation

Challenger or latecomer firms
Presentation by Chris Wu on Asymmetric Innovation. The core concept of his new book steps from Clayton's Innovator's Sol (...)

Disruptive Technologies

Emergence of Competition
Ron Adner and Peter B. Zemsky formalize the phenomenon of disruptive technologies that initially serve isolated market n (...)

Introduction to Innovation and Disruptive Technologies

Innovation Management, Innovation Strategy
This presentations is an introduction into the concepts of Innovations and Disruptive Technologies. The following sectio (...)

Explained: How can Innovative Players Beat Large, Established Firms?

Disruptive Innovation, Innovation Strategy, Competition, Innovators Dilemma, Market Segmentation, Sustaining Innovation
How is it possible that small entrants with limited resources can successfully compete with large, established firms tha (...)

Prof. Clay Christensen Explains Disruptive Innovation

Innovation Strategy, Strategic Marketing, Research and Development, Strategic Vision
According to Professor Clay Christensen, a "disruptive innovation" is NOT a breakthrough innovation that makes good prod (...)

Design Thinking for Innovation

Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Design Thinking, CSR, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Innovation
This presentation is about design thinking and the connection to social entrepreneurship. The presentation includes the (...)

Disruptive Innovation: Why Market Leaders Fail

Disruptive Innovation, Innovation Strategy, Strategic Innovation, Product Development, Disruptive Technology
In this animated video Prof. Robert Perrons explains Prof. Clayton Christensen`s Theory of Disruptive Technologies and h (...)

Strategic Innovation Leadership

Leadership, Strategic Leadership, Innovation Management
Presentation about Strategic Innovation Leadership that includes the following sections: 1. Strategic Innovation Leader (...)

Distinctive vs. Dynamic Capabilities

Inside-out Business Strategy
In this presentation it is about Distinctive Capabilities and Dynamic Capabilities. Distinctive Capabilities are present (...)

Disruptive Innovation Diagram

Innovation Management
Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in (...)

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