Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]
(Christensen)

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总结

Clayton Christensen破裂创新

什么是颠覆性创新(Disruptive Innovation)? 释义

Clayton Christensen的颠覆性创新理论旨在描述新技术(革命性变革)对公司存在的影响。 1997年,Clayton Christensen 在《创新者的困境:当新技术使大公司破产》(The Innovator's Dilemma:When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail)一书中, 首次提出了“颠覆性技术(Disruptive Technologies)”一词。
他说,反复的事实让我们看到,那些由于新的消费供给范式的出现而“亡”的公司企业,本应该对颠覆性技术有所预见,但去无动于衷,直至为时已晚。


只专注于他们认为该做的事情,如服务于最有利可图的顾客,聚焦边际利润最诱人的产品项目,那些大公司的领导者一直在走一条持续创新的道路,而恰是这一经营路线,为颠覆性新技术埋葬他们敞开了大门。 这一悲剧之所以发生,是因为现有公司资源配置流程的设计总是以可持续创新、实现利润最大化为导向的,这一设计思想最为关注的是现有顾客以及被证明了的市场面。 然而,一旦颠覆性创新出现(它是市场上现有产品更为便宜、更为方便的替代品,它直接锁定低端消费者或者产生全然一新的消费群体),现有企业便立马瘫痪。 为此,他们采取的应对措施往往是转向高端市场,而不是积极防御这些新技术、固守低端市场,然而,颠覆性创新不断发展进步,一步步蚕食传统企业的市场份额,最终取代传统产品的统治地位。


创新类型

公司在寻求新的增长业务时,往往有两种选择。 一种选择是,通过持续创新(Sustaining Innovation,从市场领导者手中抢夺现有市场。 另一种选择是,通过Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]或者开辟新的市场,或者扎根于那些现有产品的最差顾客群。

颠覆性创新又有两个类型。 第一个类型是通过锁定现有产品没有服务到的顾客群体从而产生新的市场。 第二种类型是竞争现有产品市场上的低端消费者
 

颠覆性创新理论起源。 历史

Christensen在哈佛所做的研究工作。


颠覆性创新法的运用。 应用

  • 各行各业、各种企业 ——因为它们都会被科技创新/变革所影响。

颠覆性创新的步骤。 流程

  • 根据颠覆性创新模型,当现有市场顾客的需求表现不断提高时,为满足这一需求的技术范式表现也随之提高。 通常,技术范式表现与顾客需求表现的提高过程是两个不同的轨线(参见右图)。 当两条轨线的倾斜程度不一致、技术范式轨线超过了顾客需求轨线的时候,就意味着原本活跃于非主流次级市场上新技术要开始向其他顾客群落迁徙了。 这就为变革者们提供了手段去满足新的顾客,这些顾客在过去可一直没有把他们的供给放在眼里,认为他们的产品、服务是非主流的、不符标准的。 同时,在现有市场上,他们的产品表现也被认为比传统技术范式的供给更有价值、与顾客需求更直接相关。
  • 颠覆性创新与大众普及化(Commodilization)携手并进 如果一个公司将其产品性能表现提升到超过顾客需求表现的程度,并使得顾客不得不为超标性能额外付出,那么这些在创新变革上做过了头的公司,也是不可能赢得市场的。 其结果要么是颠覆性创新产品抢走市场,要么就是被大众普及化产品压榨利润。 当某一行业遭受颠覆性创新浪潮的冲击时,价值链上产生利润的环节随着时间变化也在迁徙。 当一切发生时,如果某一公司能够将自己定位于价值链上原本表现不佳的环节,它必然将实现盈利。

颠覆性创新的局限。 缺点

  • 颠覆性创新要求一个截然分开、另起炉灶的战略流程。 这一流程既不能是计划好的,也不能专注于对现有问题的提高改进,它必须是突然发生的,并专注于那些意料不到的机会、问题与成功可能。
  • 尽管产品、服务的创新设计不以满足当前消费者的当前消费需求为目标,但消费者的潜在需求确实应该考虑进来。 但是,了解人们的真实需求远非易事。
  • 基于颠覆性创新]面向新市场、面向低端现有市场的属性,它不可能很快实现大幅盈利。 不幸的是,风险投资人现在是越来越急不可待地要看到利润。

颠覆性创新的假定。 条件

公司冒险做出决定,有意忽略那些对现有顾客需求没有帮助的技术。当两条表现轨线相接时,这种公司注定要灭亡。


参考书: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

参考书: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

参考书: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next 


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比较:  Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  Ten Schools of Thought[战略思想十大流派]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Innovation Adoption Curve[创新采用曲线]  |  Marketing Mix[营销组合]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义]


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