Omvälvande Innovation (Disruptive Innovation) (Christensen)

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Clayton Christensen disruptive innovation

Vad är Disruptive/Omvälvande Innovation? Beskrivning

Disruptive Innovation modellen från Clayton Christensen är en teori som kan användas för att beskriva effekten av nya teknologier (omvälvande förändring) på ett företags existens. Clayton Christensen först myntade för formuleringen ”omvälvande teknologier” år 1997, i hans bok ”Innovatörens Dilemma: När nya teknologier orsakar att stora företag misslyckas”.
Han visade att  tiden och igen nästan alla de organisationer, som hade ”gått under” eller blivit ersatta från deras industrier (på grund av ett nytt paradigm av kunderbjudande) kunde se den kommande omvälvningen men gjorde ingenting förrän det var för sent.


Genom att göra vad goda företag förväntas att de skall göra - serva deras mest lönsamma kunder och fokusera investeringar där vinstmarginalerna är attraktivast - etablerade industriledare är på vägen av vidmakthållande innovationer och att lämna sig öppna för att omvälvande teknologier ska begrava dem. Detta händer, därför att processer för resurstilldelningen i etablerade företag planläggs för att maximera vinster med hjälp av sammanhållande innovationer som i grunden innebär designa bättre och bättre musfällor för de existerande kunder eller beprövade marknadssegmenten. När Omvälvande Innovationer (typiskt billigare, enkelare att använda versioner av existerande produkter med målgruppen med lägre pris eller helt nya kunder), dyker upp, blir de etablerade företagen paralyserade. De motiveras nästan alltid för att gå upp-marknadgruppsnivå/-segment i stället för att försvara dessa nya eller låg pris marknader och slutligen den omvälvande innovationen förbättrar, stjäler mer marknadsandel och byter ut den regerande produkten.


Typer av innovation

Företag har två grundläggande val när de försöker att bygga nya-tillväxt affärer. De kan försöka att ta en existerande marknad från en innvarande konkurrent med vidmakthållande innovationer. Eller de kan försöka att ta över en konkurrent med hjälp av omvälvande innovationer som endera skapar nya marknader eller får rötter bland den innevarande konkurrentens värsta kunder.

Det finns två distinkta typer av omvälvande innovationer. Den första typen skapar en ny marknad genom att fokusering icke-konsumenter.  konkurrerar inom det lågt pris segmentet  på en etablerad marknad.
 

Ursprung till Disruptive/omvälvande Innovation modell. Historia

Christensen forskning och studier på Harvard.


Användning av  Disruptive/omvälvande Innovation metod. Användningsområden

  • Alla sorter av företag -  de som kan få effekt av teknologi innovation/-förändring.

De olika Stegen i Disruptive/Omvälvande Innovation. Processen

  • Modellen visar att, den prestationen som begärs av kunderna på en existerande marknad ökar över tiden, så gör också prestationen att man inom ett teknologiskt paradigm. Vanligt är att den prestationsförbättring som tillhandahålls har en annan bana än den bana av prestationsförbättring som är begärd av kunderna (se bild). När banans lutning skiljer sig åt och den erhållna prestationen överskrider den begärda prestationen, nya teknologier som endast var konkurrenskraftig på prestationen inom avlägsna marknadnischer, kanske kan migrera över in i andra kundnätverk. Detta erbjuder innovatörer ett medel till att nå nya kunder, som tidigare hade betraktat deras erbjudande som undermåligt; och detta möjliggör för dem att erbjuda etablerade kärnmarknader en ny uppsättning av prestationsvärdesattribut, som nu är  ännu mer relevanta än det nuvarande paradigmet.
  • Omvälvning och kommersialisering går faktiskt hand - i - hand. Ett företag, som skjuter över målet kan helt enkelt inte segra (ett företag som förbättrar en produkt till en nivå där den är mer än gott nog för kunder att använda och betala en högre pris för). Antingen så kommer omvälvningen att ta dess marknader eller så kommer kommersialiseringen ta dess vinster. Medans nya vågor av omvälvming sköljer över en industri, så kommer platsen där pengarna finns att skifta tvärsöver värdekedjan med tiden. Medans detta händer, så kommer de företag som placerar sig på ett område i värdekedjan där prestationen ännu inte är tillräckligt bra så kommera de att lyckas erövra vinsten.

Begränsningar med Disruptive Innovation. Nackdelar

  • Disruptive Innovation kräver en särskild strategiprocess. Denna process måste vara frambrytande och fokuserad på oförväntadmöjligheter, problem och framgångar, i stället för påtänkt och fokuserad på förbättrad förståelse av vilka arbeten och vad inte.
  • I stället för att designa och konstruera produkter och tjänster som vänder sig till nuvarande beteende och  nuvarande kunder, de bakomliggande behoven hos personer bör stötta designen av innovationer. Förståelse för vad personerna egentligen har för behov är emellertid långtifrån lätt.
  • Omvälvande affärer kan inte uppnå stora vinster speciellt snabbt , tack vare deras sätt att vara på (att fokusera på nya marknader eller på  lågpris segmenten  på de redanexisterande marknaderna). Riskkapitalister är ökat otåliga för att företagen skall leverera vinster.

Antaganden med Disruptive/omvälvande Innovation. Villkor

Företagen riskerar dess fortlevnad med beslut om att ignorera teknologier som inte verkar att vända sig till deras kunders behov, som kan bli livshotande när två paradigmatiska banor framskrider i växelverkan.


Bok: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma

Bok: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution

Bok: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next 


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