biography of W. Edwards Deming
W Edwards Deming was an American statistician who is associated with the
rise of Japan as a manufacturing nation, and with the invention of
Total Quality Management (TQM). Deming went to Japan just after the
War to help set up a census of the Japanese population. While he was there,
he taught 'statistical process control' to Japanese engineers - a set of techniques
which allowed them to manufacture high-quality goods without expensive machinery.
In 1960 he was awarded a medal by the Japanese Emperor for his services to
that country's industry.
Deming returned to the US and was unknown for years until the publication
of his book "Out of the crisis" in 1982. In this book, Deming set out 14 points
which, if applied to US manufacturing industry, would he believed, save the
US from industrial doom by the Japanese.
The Fourteen Points of Management of Dr. W. Edward Deming represent for
many people the essence of Total Quality Management (TQM).
Deming's Fourteen Points of Management
- Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service.
Compare: Hoshin Kanri
- Policy Deployment. (Organizations must allocate resources for long-term
planning, research, and education, and for the constant improvement of the
design of their products and services)
- Adopt the new philosophy. (Government regulations representing obstacles
must be removed, transformation of companies is needed)
- End the dependence on mass inspections. (Quality must be designed and
built into the processes. Prevent defects, rather than attempting to detect
and fix them, after they have occurred)
- End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tags alone.
(Organizations should establish long-term relationships with [single] suppliers)
- Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service.
(Management and employees must search continuously for ways to improve quality
- Institute training. (Training at all levels is a necessity, not optional)
- Adopt and institute leadership. (Managers should lead, not supervise)
- Drive out fear. (Make employees feel secure enough to express ideas
and ask questions)
- Break down barriers between staff areas. (Working in teams will solve
many problems and will improve quality and productivity)
- Eliminate slogans, warnings, and targets for the workforce. (Problems
with quality and productivity are caused by the system, not by individuals.
Posters and slogans generate frustration and resentment)
- Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for
people in management. (To achieve their quotas, people will create defective
products and false reports)
- Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. (Individual
performance reviews are a great barrier to pride of achievement)
- Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone. (Continuous learning
- Take action to accomplish the transformation. (Commitment on the part
of both top management and employees is required).
Fourteen Points of Management (Deming) Special Interest Group
Special Interest Group (595 members)
Quality Management Stages
The following stages of quality management are typically distinguished:
- Ad hoc
- Product oriented
- Process oriented
Compare with Deming's Fourteen Points of Management:
Quality Function Deployment
| Hoshin Kanri
- Policy Deployment |
14 Principles of
Management (Fayol) |
| POSDCORB |
Training Within Industry
Marketing | SERVQUAL
Attributes of Management Excellence |
Five Disciplines |
Ten Principles of
Reinvention | Deming Cycle
| EFQM |
Theory XYZ |
Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization | Human
Resources | Supply Chain & Quality
More Management Methods, Models and Theory
Special Interest Group Leader