Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

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Hard or Soft Management? Explanation of Theory X Theory Y of McGregor. ('60). Explanation of Theory Z by William Ouchi. ('81)

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What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.


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Recent topics

  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach and tends to todays professio...
     
 
  Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of unpleasant behavior and attitude...
     
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The value of the individua...
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today?...
     
 
  Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to apply the tenets of these theo...
     
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to chan...
     
 
  It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure t...
     
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interc...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these exercises, definitely the model ...
     
 
  Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and interact. In theory X, it is when their work or personal situations and experiences disrupt...
     
 
  The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can empower X he will turn into Y an...
     
 
  Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of man...
     
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
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  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
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  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
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  Applying Theory Z in Practice
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  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action and behavior. Greatly influenced...
     
 
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian political examples....
     
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable ...
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance can not match the effort, need...
     
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances. Thus in our social in...
     
 

Best Practices - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z
  Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situations.I think that it is the best way of management and economy to analyze the rational t...
     
 
  Theory Z is Rare but Growing
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey research indicates that Z would be a 'yellow' - a systems type person - who works for the 'big p...
     
 
  Theory X and Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they were incapable of responsibili...
     
 
  Work Ethic: Most employees want to work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The problem is we fail each other...
     
 
  Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cultural backround of the enterprise. In fact, they are two ends of the same continuum.......
     
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a busine...
     
 
  Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can make a clear distinction between administration and management.
The way I see it, Theo...
     
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know huma...
     
 

Expert Tips - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z
 

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Resources - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z

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News about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

News about Theory Ouchi


     
 

Videos about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

Videos about Theory Ouchi


     
 

Presentations about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

Presentations about Theory Ouchi


     
 

Books about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

Books about Theory Ouchi


     
 

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More about Theory Ouchi


     

Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


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