Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

Knowledge Center





Summary, forum, best practices, expert tips and information sources.


What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.


Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group (534 members)

Forum about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z  

The most recent topics about: Theory X Theory Y Theory Z.


Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive m (...)
7
 
0 reactions
 
🔥 NEW Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian (...)
1
 
0 reactions
 
Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations. To what e (...)
1
 
0 reactions
 
Best Practices about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z

Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


🥇 Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situations.I think that it is the best way of management and eco (...)
54
 
1 reactions

 
🥈 Theory Z is Rare but Growing
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey research indicates that Z would be a 'yellow' - a systems type per (...)
30
 
2 reactions

 
🥉 Theory X and Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they (...)
26
 
1 reactions

 
Work Ethic: Most employees want to work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The (...)
22
 
1 reactions

 
Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cultural backround of the enterprise. In fact, they are two en (...)
19
 
1 reactions

 
Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking. - In the growing stage of a b (...)
16
 
1 reactions

 
Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can make a clear distinction between administration and managemen (...)
13
 
4 reactions

 
Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised indus (...)
10
 
1 reactions

 
Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach (...)
9
 
0 reactions

 
Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of un (...)
9
 
1 reactions

 
Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also. One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The val (...)
8
 
0 reactions

 
Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today? (...)
8
 
0 reactions

 
Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to (...)
7
 
9 reactions

 
It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovere (...)
6
 
2 reactions

 
In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view th (...)
6
 
5 reactions

 
The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these ex (...)
6
 
4 reactions

 
Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and interact. In theory X, it is when their work or personal situ (...)
6
 
0 reactions

 
The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can em (...)
6
 
8 reactions

 
Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the . There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and env (...)
5
 
1 reactions

 
McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to (...)
5
 
2 reactions

 
Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should alwa (...)
4
 
0 reactions

 
Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchi (...)
4
 
0 reactions

 
Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and (...)
3
 
1 reactions

 
Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action an (...)
2
 
0 reactions

 
Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance (...)
0
 
0 reactions

 
No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances (...)
-1
 
0 reactions

 
Expert Tips about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z

Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information (...)
   
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style (...)
   
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations (...)
   
 
 
 

Theory X problem

Leadership (...)
   
 
 
 
Information Sources about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z

Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


How to Become a Master Manager?

Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself (...)
 
 
 
 

Human Motivation

Motivating Employees (...)
 
 
 
 

Theory X Management Style

Introduction to Motivation, Workshops, Trainings (...)
 
 
 
 

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development (...)
 
 
 
 

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude (...)
 
 
 
 

How to Achieve Employee Engagement

Employee Empowerment, Employee Participation, Participative Management, Participative Leadership (...)
 
 
 
 

Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Human Resources  |   Leadership  |  Supply Chain & Quality


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

Are you an expert in Theory X Theory Y Theory Z? Sign up for free

Link to this knowledge center

Copy this code to your web site:

 


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2020 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.6 - Last updated: 25-10-2020. All names ™ of their owners.