Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

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Hard or Soft Management? Explanation of Theory X Theory Y of McGregor. ('60). Explanation of Theory Z by William Ouchi. ('81)

Contents

  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.


Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Forum
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  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
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  It's Time for Theory Z
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  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
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  Applying Theory Z in Practice
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  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
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  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
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  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
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  Role of Perception and Turbulence
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  Contigency Management Principle
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  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical beh...
     
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explana...
     
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be thr...
     
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z t...
     
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
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  The Role of Empowerment
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Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Special Interest Group


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Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Education & Events


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Best Practices - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Premium

Expert Tips - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Premium
 

Self-fulfilling Prophesies

An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his bel...
Usage (application): Further information
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Following six short behavioral tips can help you t...
Usage (application): Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Theory X problem

McGregor pointed out that a command and control en...
Usage (application): Leadership
 
 

Resources - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Premium

How to Become a Master Manager?

This good introduction presentation is about how t...
Usage (application): Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself
 

Human Motivation

Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Moti...
Usage (application): Motivating Employees
 

Theory X Management Style

Hilarious video showcases Theory X methods of moti...
Usage (application): Introduction to Motivation, Workshops, Trainings
 

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

This video is a nice start for any management cour...
Usage (application): Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
 

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Organizations aim for success. And so do employees...
Usage (application): Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude
 

How to Achieve Employee Engagement

Tom Peters gives a short, but fundamental advice o...
Usage (application): Employee Empowerment, Employee Participation, Participative Management, Participative Leadership
 
 

News about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

News about Theory Ouchi


     
 

Videos about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

Videos about Theory Ouchi


     
 

Presentations about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

Presentations about Theory Ouchi


     
 

More about Theory Mcgregor


     
 

More about Theory Ouchi


     

Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


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