Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

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Summary

What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.


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Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised indus (...)
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Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach (...)
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Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of un (...)
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1 reactions
Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also. One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The val (...)
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Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today? (...)
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Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive m (...)
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It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovere (...)
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Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and interact. In theory X, it is when their work or personal situ (...)
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Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the (...)
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McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to (...)
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Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should alwa (...)
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Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchi (...)
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Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and (...)
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Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action an (...)
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🔥 NEW Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian (...)
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Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations. To what e (...)
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Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance (...)
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No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances (...)
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Best Practices

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The top-rated topics about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situations.I think that it is the best way of management and eco (...)
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Theory Z is Rare but Growing
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey research indicates that Z would be a 'yellow' - a systems type per (...)
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Theory X and Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they (...)
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1 reactions

Work Ethic: Most employees want to work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The (...)
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Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cultural backround of the enterprise. In fact, they are two en (...)
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Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking. - In the growing stage of a b (...)
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1 reactions

Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can make a clear distinction between administration and managemen (...)
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4 reactions

Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to (...)
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9 reactions

In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view th (...)
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5 reactions

The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these ex (...)
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4 reactions

The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can em (...)
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8 reactions

Expert Tips

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Advanced insights about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information
An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-f (...)

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency: 1. L - LISTENING: Actively list (...)

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a (...)

Theory X problem

Leadership
McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as lever (...)
Information Sources

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Various sources of information regarding Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


How to Become a Master Manager?

Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself
This good introduction presentation is about how to be a Master Manager. By J. S. Osland, D. A. Kolb, I. M. Rubin and M. (...)

Human Motivation

Motivating Employees
Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Motivation. Topics: 1. What is motivation? 2. How do needs motivate peo (...)

Theory X Management Style

Introduction to Motivation, Workshops, Trainings
Hilarious video showcases Theory X methods of motivation to increase productivity. (...)

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
This video is a nice start for any management course. Jobs shares some ideas on managers (in a high-tech environment) an (...)

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude
Organizations aim for success. And so do employees. But individuals (employees, executives, managers) have their own def (...)

How to Achieve Employee Engagement

Employee Empowerment, Employee Participation, Participative Management, Participative Leadership
Tom Peters gives a short, but fundamental advice on how you can accomplish his 3rd and 4th principle (3. Autonomy and En (...)
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Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


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