Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

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Summary, forum, best practices, expert tips and information sources.

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Summary

What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.


Special Interest Group

Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Special Interest Group.



Special Interest Group (564 members)

Discuss

Forum about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z.


 

Theory Z
As the summary of Theory X and Y says, William Ouchi came up in 1981 with a variant that combined American and Japanese ...
30
 
9 comments
What Determines Theory X or Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they ...
26
 
11 comments
Work Ethic: Most Employees Want to Work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The...
22
 
1 comments
Theory X Will Always Prevail Because it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of un...
12
 
3 comments
🔥 NEW Participative Management
Managing in today's organization is complex due to the rapid changes in technology, etcetera. In order to remain competi...
7
 
1 comments
Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to ...
7
 
16 comments

Best Practices

The top-rated topics about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


Expert Tips

Advanced insights about Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information
An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-f...

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency: 1. L - LISTENING: Actively list...

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a...

Theory X problem

Leadership
McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as lever...
Information Sources

Various sources of information regarding Theory X Theory Y Theory Z. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


How to Become a Master Manager?

Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself
This good introduction presentation is about how to be a Master Manager. By J. S. Osland, D. A. Kolb, I. M. Rubin and M....

Human Motivation

Motivating Employees
Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Motivation. Topics: 1. What is motivation? 2. How do needs motivate peo...

Theory X Management Style

Introduction to Motivation, Workshops, Trainings
Hilarious video showcases Theory X methods of motivation to increase productivity....

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
This video is a nice start for any management course. Jobs shares some ideas on managers (in a high-tech environment) an...

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude
Organizations aim for success. And so do employees. But individuals (employees, executives, managers) have their own def...

How to Achieve Employee Engagement

Employee Empowerment, Employee Participation, Participative Management, Participative Leadership
Tom Peters gives a short, but fundamental advice on how you can accomplish his 3rd and 4th principle (3. Autonomy and En...

Research Links

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Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


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