Two Factor Theory
(Herzberg)

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Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. Explanation of Two Factor Theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg.

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Two Factor Theory DiagramAccording to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.


The two Factors in the Theory

  • Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
  • Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

  • Working conditions

  • Quality of supervision

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Safety

  • Company

  • Job

  • Company policies and administration

  • Interpersonal relations

Typical Motivation Factors

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • Responsibility for task

  • Interesting job

  • Advancement to higher level tasks

  • Growth

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

  • High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

  • High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

  • Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

  • Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.

Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:

  • job enlargement
  • job rotation, and/or
  • job enrichment.

Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.


Two Factor Theory Forum
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  PROs and CONs of Employee Of the Month Programs
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  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
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  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
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  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
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  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
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  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
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  Motivation Engenders Commitment
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  Additional Hygiene Factors
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Without the proper management of these fact...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory 2.0
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Since knowledge, such as...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
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  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
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  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
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  Education Motivation
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  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
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  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?
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Best Practices - Two Factor Theory Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
In the current crisis, it's important to keep your innovation effort at a high level. Martha E. Mangelsdorf writes in MITSloan Management Review Vol 40 No 3 p. 24 about an analysis by Professors Henry Sauermann and Wesley M. Cohen on what makes em...
     
 
  How to measure motivation?
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Expert Tips - Two Factor Theory Premium
 

Drivers and Levers of Employees

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices", Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria mention 4 drives underlying everything we do:
...
Usage (application): Improving Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Examples of Two Factor Model

I would like to compare Herzberg's 2 factor model to a human body (organisation):
- The disease-infected human body (unhealthy organisation) can ...
Usage (application): Teaching Two Factor Theory
 
 
 

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to Herzberg

I find it interesting that Herzberg separates dissatisfaction and satisfaction as whole different feelings apart from one another. He says dissatisfac...
Usage (application): Important Note
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at employees or coachees for motivation purposes is described by Heidi Grant Halverson and E. Tory Higgins in HBR March 20...
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Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, consumer) needs is to break them down into:
- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
Usage (application): Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
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Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Base your Workspace Design on Employee Interaction

Many innovative organizations of today have faith that more open spaces triggers personal interactions, performance, creativity and innovation. Becaus...
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How to Avoid Too Much Transparency and Allow Some Privacy

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Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job Embeddedness

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Resources - Two Factor Theory Premium

Human Motivation

Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Motivation. Topics:
1. What is motivation?
2. How do needs motivate people?
3. Are ther...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 

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Lecture about Social Exchange Theory and Organizational Support Theory and the role they play in Employee Motivation.

Social Exchange Theor...
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Editable MS-Word diagram of Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors....
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Stum (2013) developed the so-called Performance Pyramid. His model is clearly based on Maslow’s H...
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Presentation about motivation, from a psychological perspective. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Psychological Needs
2....
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1. Outline
2. Wellbeing de...
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The Workplace Environment and Aging Issues

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Usage (application): Performance Management, Two-factor Theory, Absenteism, Presenteism
 

Fatigue Management as Responsibility of Employer and Employee

This presentation elaborates on the management of fatigue and the management of it, and includes the following sections:
1. Training outline
...
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First Introduction to Employee Engagement and Employee Commitment

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- COMMITTED employees ...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Employee Engagement and Commitment, Start of Training/Workshop
 

Two Factor Theory Diagram

Download and edit the 12manage PowerPoint model for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in intranets, websites, books, magaz...
Usage (application): Employee Satisfaction / Frustration
 

Work-Family Conflicts and Work-Life Policies

This presentation is about Work-Family Conflicts and Employee Performance. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Learning Objectiv...
Usage (application): Performance Management, Work-Life Balance, HR, Programs
 

Managing New, Dynamic Workplaces through Employee Engagement

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Usage (application): Workplace Management, Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Burnout
 

How to Motivate your Employees: Personal Currency

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Introduction and Summary of Herzberg's Motivation Theory

Hertzberg's Theory of Motivation explained:
- Hygiene factors
- Motivators
Furthermore the need for regular feedback is explained.
...
Usage (application): Initial understanding of the Two Factors, Trainings, Workshops
 
 

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Compare with: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Customer Satisfaction model Kano  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Competing Values FrameworkExpectancy Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Cultural Dimensions  |   Leadership Continuum  |  Theory of Needs  |  Managerial Grid


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