Two Factor Theory
(Herzberg)

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Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. Explanation of Two Factor Theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg.

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Two Factor Theory DiagramAccording to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.


The two Factors in the Theory

  • Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
  • Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

  • Working conditions

  • Quality of supervision

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Safety

  • Company

  • Job

  • Company policies and administration

  • Interpersonal relations

Typical Motivation Factors

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • Responsibility for task

  • Interesting job

  • Advancement to higher level tasks

  • Growth

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

  • High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

  • High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

  • Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

  • Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.

Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:

  • job enlargement
  • job rotation, and/or
  • job enrichment.

Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.




Two Factor Theory Forum (23 topics) Help
  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?  - What challenges an employee at any phase in his life is the motivator.
Sometimes, earning more money is seen as a challenge by an employee, depending on his experience and urge to cross a social strata or a barrier.
Sometimes money just wor...
     
  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies  - How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a small company (5-10 employees)?
Any experiences? Does anyone know of a simple set of tools?...
     
  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory  - This theory need not be confined to any type of business situation. It can be used for interaction between any two individuals to understand how individuals are motivated whenever they interact...
The factors established by this theory are univ...
     
  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads  - Many enterprises transform their structures merging several organisational cultures in cycles.
How can the staff remain motivated when changes are made in the organisations values, collectiveness, consistency etc... In the adage of old wine and...
     
  Avoid Under and over Motivation  - Under motivated as well as over motivated workers both have negative effects in productivity. A balance has to be developed in order for workers to act normally, never discouraged nor disgusted and extremely anxious and expectant of rewards or...      
  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!  - Never forget: money remains the primary motivating factor of employees....
Here in Uganda, the oldest national university Makerere has been closed due to striking lecturers over poor pay. They don't complain about harassment or poor working envi...
     
  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors  - Deeply felt internal motivational factors can overcome demotivating factors.
Such positive internal motivational factors could be a strong belief of cause or a smart direction of the organization....
     
  Motivation Engenders Commitment  - Adequately motivated staff are usually more committed to perform optimally.
More often than not, they are happy on their beats which could be due to their being satisfied with the welfare, training and perquisites they are enjoying from their em...
     
  Additional Hygiene Factors  - Though the theory covers many of the reasons, I believe others factors like management style, organization culture, office politics, training standards also should come under the hygiene factor.
Without the proper management of these fact...
     
  Two Factor Theory 2.0  - 2 Factor Theory may be applied in any type of organizations and in all levels. But, again there are other elements in the work environment which may effect the motivation of employees and the organization results.
Since knowledge, such as...
     
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?  - I think Herzberg's theory fits hundred percent perfect for present day organizations. Human minds need motivations so often... In the mean time hygiene factors also play a vital part in job satisfaction....      
  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations  - Is the model applicable in non-government organizations where officers are not receiving remunerations in whatever kind where the pressing concern is how to drive them to perform to their best level?...      
  Stress inTwo Factor Theory  - Where should we position STRESS in this 2 Factor Theory? Please explain... Thank you......      
  Education Motivation  - Where does educational motivation fit in?...      
  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove  - It may seem not very practical to apply this theory in some parts of the world, like the third world. Going through Herzberg's theory in detail I have just realised it's the best work situation that bears fruit for both employee and employer. I would...      
  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?  - The theory is pretty good, but I am of the view that the underlying reason for a big percentage of people who move on is the boss. Most of the time when an employee leaves his job it's due to the treatment he or she receives from the boss. Treatment ...      
  Missing Social Environment Issues  - I think that the theory is great, but it does ignore the fact that even with great structure of Motivators and Hygiene factors a company might suffer from social environment issues, such as fairness in setting job tasks, etc.....      
  Two Motivation Factors  - As the analysis considered both hygiene factors as well as motivation factors, it is very relevant to present day organizations....      
  Stratification and Herzberg  - I wonder how well Hertzberg translates to an organisation with flat structures and little upward mobility? I believe it used to be called 'stratification' when I was studying! Also - there is an increasing trend towards 'casualisation' in the UK - th...      
  Motivation Hygiene applies Everywhere  - Herzberg's 2 Factor theory need not confine to work situations only. Just analyze an interactional session between two individuals. How recognition motivates individuals to interact more and how a discomforting feature of one makes the other leave th...      

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Compare with: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Customer Satisfaction model Kano  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Competing Values FrameworkExpectancy Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Cultural Dimensions  |   Leadership Continuum  |  Theory of Needs  |  Managerial Grid


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