Tvåfaktorsteorin
(Hertzberg)

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Motivationsfaktorer, hygienfaktorer. Förklaring till Tvåfaktorsteorin (Two Factor Theory) och KITA av Frederick Hertzberg.

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Two Factor Theory DiagramEnligt Tvåfaktorsteorin av Frederick Hertzberg påverkas personer av två faktorer. Tillfredsställelsen och psykologisk tillväxt är en resultatfaktor av motivationsfaktorer. Missnöje var ett resultat av hygienfaktorer. Hertzberg utvecklade denna motivationsteori under hans utredning av 200 revisorer och ingenjörer i USA.


De två faktorerna i teorin är

  • Hygienfaktorer (Yttre) är nödvändiga för att säkerställa att anställda inte blir missbelåtna. De orsakar inte högre nivåer av motivation, men utan dem finns det missnöje.
  • Motivationsfaktorer (Inre) är nödvändiga för att motivera anställda till bättre prestation. Dessa faktorer resulterar från inre generatorer hos anställda.

Typiska hygienfaktorer

  • Arbetsvillkor

  • Kvalitet i arbetsledningen

  • Lön

  • Status

  • Säkerhet

  • Företag

  • Jobb

  • Företagets riktlinjer och administration

  • Mellanmänskliga relationer

Typiska motivationsfaktorer

  • Prestation

  • Erkännande utifrån prestation

  • Ansvar för uppgift

  • Intressant jobb

  • Befordran till uppgifter på en högre nivå

  • Tillväxt

Kombination av hygien- och motivationsfaktorerna resulterar i fyra scenarion

  • Hög hygien + Hög motivation: Den ideala situationen där anställda motiveras och har mycket få klagomål.

  • Hög hygien + Låg motivation: Anställda har få klagomål men motiveras inte så mycket. Jobbet uppfattas mest via lönebeskedet.

  • Låg hygien + Hög motivation: Anställda motiveras men har mycket klagomål. En situation där jobbet är spännande och utmanande. Emellertid är lönen och arbetsförhållandena inte REKO.

  • Låg hygien + Låg motivation: Den värsta situationen. Anställda motiveras inte och har mycket klagomål.

Hertzberg föreslår att arbetet mestadels kan arrangeras och bör vara arrangerat på följande sätt:

  • jobb utökning
  • jobbrotation, och/eller
  • jobb berikning.

Förutom Tvåfaktorsteorin är Frederick Hertzberg också känd för hans akronym KITA, som politiskt har översatts som en spark i baken! Hertzberg säger att KITA inte tar fram motivationen. Utan endast förändring.


Tvåfaktorsteorin Forumet
  Increasing Employee Motivation and Satisfaction with Job Titles
Traditional purposes of job titles are standardization and benchmarking. They are sources and reflections of formality and rigidity or mechanisms of bureaucratic control. Over the past decade however, London Business School professor Dan Cable...
     
 
  Nothing Flourishes Without Attention
Nothing flourishes without attention. This simple phrase is endemic in all endeavors. A gardener knows all too well what would happen to his plants if they are not attended to.
 
   
 
  Privacy at Work
When it comes to office spaces, organizations are always trying to find a balance between on the one hand public and on the other hand private workspace in order to encourage collaboration. However, public spaces are often criticized as it ass...
     
 
  PROs and CONs of Employee Of the Month Programs
A common recommended and used form to increase employees’ motivation and performance is Employee-Of-the-Month (EOM). Such a strategy would boost morale through employee rewards and giving credits to excellent employees.
 
   
 
  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
What challenges an employee at any phase in his life is the motivator.
Sometimes, earning more money is seen as a challenge by an employee, depending on his experience and urge to cross a social strata or a barrier.
Sometimes money just wor...
     
 
  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a small company (5-10 employees)?
Any experiences? Does anyone know of a simple set of tools?...
     
 
  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
This theory need not be confined to any type of business situation. It can be used for interaction between any two individuals to understand how individuals are motivated whenever they interact...
The factors established by this theory are univ...
     
 
  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
Many enterprises transform their structures merging several organisational cultures in cycles.
How can the staff remain motivated when changes are made in the organisations values, collectiveness, consistency etc... In the adage of old wine and...
     
 
  Avoid Under and over Motivation
Under motivated as well as over motivated workers both have negative effects in productivity. A balance has to be developed in order for workers to act normally, never discouraged nor disgusted and extremely anxious and expectant of rewards or...
     
 
  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
Never forget: money remains the primary motivating factor of employees....
Here in Uganda, the oldest national university Makerere has been closed due to striking lecturers over poor pay. They don't complain about harassment or poor working envi...
     
 
  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors
Deeply felt internal motivational factors can overcome demotivating factors.
Such positive internal motivational factors could be a strong belief of cause or a smart direction of the organization....
     
 
  Motivation Engenders Commitment
Adequately motivated staff are usually more committed to perform optimally.
More often than not, they are happy on their beats which could be due to their being satisfied with the welfare, training and perquisites they are enjoying from their em...
     
 
  Additional Hygiene Factors
Though the theory covers many of the reasons, I believe others factors like management style, organization culture, office politics, training standards also should come under the hygiene factor.
Without the proper management of these fact...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory 2.0
2 Factor Theory may be applied in any type of organizations and in all levels. But, again there are other elements in the work environment which may effect the motivation of employees and the organization results.
Since knowledge, such as...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
I think Herzberg's theory fits hundred percent perfect for present day organizations. Human minds need motivations so often... In the mean time hygiene factors also play a vital part in job satisfaction....
     
 
  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
Is the model applicable in non-government organizations where officers are not receiving remunerations in whatever kind where the pressing concern is how to drive them to perform to their best level?...
     
 
  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
Where should we position STRESS in this 2 Factor Theory? Please explain... Thank you......
     
 
  Education Motivation
Where does educational motivation fit in?...
     
 
  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
It may seem not very practical to apply this theory in some parts of the world, like the third world. Going through Herzberg's theory in detail I have just realised it's the best work situation that bears fruit for both employee and employer. I would...
     
 
  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?
The theory is pretty good, but I am of the view that the underlying reason for a big percentage of people who move on is the boss. Most of the time when an employee leaves his job it's due to the treatment he or she receives from the boss. Treatment ...
     
 

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Best Practices - Tvåfaktorsteorin Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
In the current crisis, it's important to keep your innovation effort at a high level. Martha E. Mangelsdorf writes in MITSloan Management Review Vol 40 No 3 p. 24 about an analysis by Professors Henry Sauermann and Wesley M. Cohen on what makes em...
     
 
  How to measure motivation?
(How) Can motivation be measured?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Two Factor Theory Premium
 

Drivers and Levers of Employees

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices", Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria mention 4 drives underlying everything we do:
...
Usage (application): Improving Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Examples of Two Factor Model

I would like to compare Herzberg's 2 factor model to a human body (organisation):
- The disease-infected human body (unhealthy organisation) can ...
Usage (application): Teaching Two Factor Theory
 
 
 

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to Herzberg

I find it interesting that Herzberg separates dissatisfaction and satisfaction as whole different feelings apart from one another. He says dissatisfac...
Usage (application): Important Note
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at employees or coachees for motivation purposes is described by Heidi Grant Halverson and E. Tory Higgins in HBR March 20...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, consumer) needs is to break them down into:
- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
Usage (application): Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Base your Workspace Design on Employee Interaction

Many innovative organizations of today have faith that more open spaces triggers personal interactions, performance, creativity and innovation. Becaus...
Usage (application): Workspace Design, Innovation Environment, Employee Interaction, Office Space Design
 
 
 

How to Avoid Too Much Transparency and Allow Some Privacy

In an article “The Transparency Trap” it is argued that although a certain level of transparency does drive out wasteful and unfair practices and enc...
Usage (application): Corporate Transparency, Employee Privacy
 
 
 

Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job Embeddedness

Mitchell, Lee and Tyler (2014) focus on the contextual (or external) factors that influence employees’ staying, instead of emphasizing the fact...
Usage (application): Employee Retention, Attrition, Organizational Commitment, Employee Satisfaction
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
...
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 

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