Motivationsfaktorer, hygienfaktorer. Förklaring till Tvåfaktorsteorin (Two Factor Theory) och KITA av Frederick Hertzberg.


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Two Factor Theory DiagramEnligt Tvåfaktorsteorin av Frederick Hertzberg påverkas personer av två faktorer. Tillfredsställelsen och psykologisk tillväxt är en resultatfaktor av motivationsfaktorer. Missnöje var ett resultat av hygienfaktorer. Hertzberg utvecklade denna motivationsteori under hans utredning av 200 revisorer och ingenjörer i USA.

De två faktorerna i teorin är

  • Hygienfaktorer (Yttre) är nödvändiga för att säkerställa att anställda inte blir missbelåtna. De orsakar inte högre nivåer av motivation, men utan dem finns det missnöje.
  • Motivationsfaktorer (Inre) är nödvändiga för att motivera anställda till bättre prestation. Dessa faktorer resulterar från inre generatorer hos anställda.

Typiska hygienfaktorer

  • Arbetsvillkor

  • Kvalitet i arbetsledningen

  • Lön

  • Status

  • Säkerhet

  • Företag

  • Jobb

  • Företagets riktlinjer och administration

  • Mellanmänskliga relationer

Typiska motivationsfaktorer

  • Prestation

  • Erkännande utifrån prestation

  • Ansvar för uppgift

  • Intressant jobb

  • Befordran till uppgifter på en högre nivå

  • Tillväxt

Kombination av hygien- och motivationsfaktorerna resulterar i fyra scenarion

  • Hög hygien + Hög motivation: Den ideala situationen där anställda motiveras och har mycket få klagomål.

  • Hög hygien + Låg motivation: Anställda har få klagomål men motiveras inte så mycket. Jobbet uppfattas mest via lönebeskedet.

  • Låg hygien + Hög motivation: Anställda motiveras men har mycket klagomål. En situation där jobbet är spännande och utmanande. Emellertid är lönen och arbetsförhållandena inte REKO.

  • Låg hygien + Låg motivation: Den värsta situationen. Anställda motiveras inte och har mycket klagomål.

Hertzberg föreslår att arbetet mestadels kan arrangeras och bör vara arrangerat på följande sätt:

  • jobb utökning
  • jobbrotation, och/eller
  • jobb berikning.

Förutom Tvåfaktorsteorin är Frederick Hertzberg också känd för hans akronym KITA, som politiskt har översatts som en spark i baken! Hertzberg säger att KITA inte tar fram motivationen. Utan endast förändring.

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