Customer Satisfaction Model
(Kano)

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Measuring client happiness. Explanation of Customer Satisfaction Model of Kano. ('84)

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Kano customer satisfaction model

What is the customer satisfaction model? Description

The customer satisfaction model from N. Kano is a quality management and marketing technique that can be used for measuring client happiness.


Kano's model of customer satisfaction distinguishes six categories of quality attributes, from which the first three actually influence customer satisfaction:

  1. Basic Factors. (Dissatisfiers. Must have.) - The minimum requirements which will cause dissatisfaction if they are not fulfilled, but do not cause customer satisfaction if they are fulfilled (or are exceeded). The customer regards these as prerequisites and takes these for granted. Basic factors establish a market entry 'threshold'.
  2. Excitement Factors. (Satisfiers. Attractive.) - The factors that increase customer satisfaction if delivered but do not cause dissatisfaction if they are not delivered. These factors surprise the customer and generate 'delight'. Using these factors, a company can really distinguish itself from its competitors in a positive way.
  3. Performance Factors. The factors that cause satisfaction if the performance is high, and they cause dissatisfaction if the performance is low. Here, the attribute performance-overall satisfaction is linear and symmetric. Typically these factors are directly connected to customers' explicit needs and desires and a company should try to be competitive here.

The additional three attributes which Kano mentions are:

  1. Indifferent attributes. The customer does not care about this feature.
  2. Questionable attributes. It is unclear whether this attribute is expected by the customer.
  3. Reverse attributes. The reverse of this product feature was expected by the customer.
     

Origin of the customer satisfaction model. History

The approach towards analyzing customer satisfaction was first published in an article by KANO, N. SERAKU, N., TAKAHASHI, F. & TSUJI, S. (1984) Attractive quality and must-be quality, Hinshitsu (Quality, the Journal of Japanese Society for Quality Control), 14, pp. 39-48.


Usage of the customer satisfaction model. Applications

Besides the obvious quality management and marketing usage, Kurt Matzler, Matthias Fuchs and Astrid Schubert wonder in their article "Employee Satisfaction: Does Kano's Model Apply?" (Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, November-December 2004) whether Kano's model on customer satisfaction factors is also relevant to describe employee satisfaction. Since employees can be perceived as internal customers. They reach the conclusion that Kano's theory is indeed useable for internal customers analysis as well.


Steps in the customer satisfaction model. Process

Kano developed a questionnaire to identify the basic, performance and excitement factors as well as the other three additional factors.

  1. For each product feature a pair of questions is formulated to which the customer can answer in one of five different ways.
  2. The first question concerns the reaction of the customer if the product shows that feature (functional question);
  3. The second question concerns the reaction of the customer if the product does NOT show this feature (dysfunctional question).
  4. By combining the answers all attributes can be classified into the six factors.



Customer Satisfaction Model Forum (23 topics) Help
  Customer Service Dynamics in the New Economy
In the present economy, organizations must conform to the increased standards of customer service. The consumer’s voice is loud and clear; they are exercising their rights, scrutinizing service, and methodically patronizing businesses that offer a di...
     
  What are your Customers' Needs? Really?
Customer Behavior Approaches
There are many approaches towards analyzing customer needs, customer satisfaction, customer behavior and customer experiences. They range from market data analysis and conjoint analysis to
     
  Measuring Client Happiness
How can we measure client happiness?...
     
  What is Customer Satisfaction? Definitions
Customer satisfaction (CS) is the state at which the requirements are fulfilled in a way that meets the expectation of them and the after sales services are taken care of....
     
  Assessing Employee Satisfaction with Kano
The article mentions that the Kano model can also be used to assess the satisfaction of employees (internal customers). How could a school administration assess the individual needs of their employees?...
     
  Kano's Original Paper
I've been searching for the original article, published in 1984. However, the last update of the journal web page is from 2002, and I didn't get any response to the mail I sent them one year ago.
I'm interested in the Kano's Q Statisti...
     
  Alternate Methods to Measure Customer Satisfaction
Are there any other approaches to measuring customer satisfaction or client happiness?...
     
  Other Attributes of Features of a Product or Service
Kano model basically provides very good direction on features which must be there, must not be there or could be there.
There is another kind of attributes of features that also can be used while selecting and deciding on product features.
...
     
  Dynamic Changes in Customer Expectations
Customers' expectations change rapidly and vary with demographic sets. How can any delivery mechanism of products and services meet the altered level of expectation at the time and point of delivery? Since the customer believes firmly that the...
     
  Using Kano Model for Strategic Planning
The Kano model can be used to find a new direction, so it can also be used as a method for defining a new strategy....
     
  Kano Model and New Products
Can you use the Kano model when testing new concepts among opinion leaders in a market research exercise? I.e. is it just suited for testing customer satisfaction for existing products/ services?...
     
  Customer Satisfaction as Research Driver
Customer satisfaction survey results should help in improving satisfaction and also in generating more revenue, for additional cost on research and development is minimized. By allotting priorities as per this on research directions, organizations ca...
     
  Customer Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage
What is the role of customer satisfaction in gaining a competitive advantage?...
     
  Research Software Development Industry?
What possible research ideas can be found regarding the applications of customer satisfaction model in the software development industry to maintain customer retention....
     
  Overall Satisfaction in Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire?
Should we have a question capturing "overall satisfaction" in a survey form, apart from individual product/service attribute rating? If required, what is the additional value?...
     
  Valid for HR Recruitment also
The same model could be applied by HR to recruit and mantain the best talents in you company....
     
  How to Design a Generic Model Serving Unique Customers?
As far as I know, every customer is different. How can we design a model which has a more generic approach irrespective of demographic and geographic differences?...
     
  Software for Measuring Customer Satisfaction
What kind of software do you require to work on a CSM survey using Kano's model?...
     
  Example FMCG and B2B business
Who can give an example of these 3 factors in the FMCG and B2B business. What are the basic factors, the excitement and the performance factors...? Thank you...
     
  Risks associated with Excitement Factor
I strongly agree that the excitement factors delight the customer but with the passage of time these factors no longer hold the surprise factor. In fact this becomes a normal expectation by the customer and if a service provider fails to imitate this...
     



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Expert Tips - Customer Satisfaction Model Premium
  Advantages of Kano’s Model - Classifying quality attributes
 
  Importance-Satisfaction Model - Classifying quality attributes
 
  A Closer Look Into Customer Value - Customer Value Analysis, Strategic Marketing, Innovation Strategy
 
  Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers) - Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
  Approaches to Understand your Customer's Needs - Customer Targeting, Customer Needs Identification, Customer Behavior
 
  Why are Brands Often So Similar? Understanding Brand Similarity/Parity - Branding, Brand Management, Brand Parity, Brand Similarity, Know Model, Brand Differentiation
 
  Relation Between Employee & Customer Satisfaction - Why Employee Satisfaction Matters for Customer Satisfaction
 

Resources - Customer Satisfaction Model Premium
Customer Satisfaction - Financial Services
Mystery Shopping - Measuring Customer Satisf.
The Costs of DISsatisfied Customers - Customer Satisfaction
Overview of the Kano Model - Customer Satisfaction, Voice of the Customer
Kano Model - Recent Developments in QFD
Summary and Introduction to the Kano Model - Initial Understanding of the Kano Model
Customer Value Management - Organizational Management, Value Creation
Surprise... Surprise - The Influence of Surprising Consumers on their Satisfaction
Consumer Behavior in the Service Sector - Decision Making, Behavioral Economics
Fundamental Customer Centricity - Understanding what Customer Centricity Really is About
The Importance of Noncustomers - Market Research, Customer Strategy, Innovation Strategy, Customer Survey Pitfalls
How to Understand Individual Customer Needs - Account Management, Sales, Uncovering Individual Customer Needs
Customer Satisfaction Model Diagram - Measuring Client Happiness
 

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Compare with Customer Satisfaction Model:  SERVQUAL  |  Relationship Marketing  |  Customer Relationship Management  |  Operational CRM  |  Two Factor Theory  |  Total Quality Management  |  Quality Function Deployment  |  Hierarchy of Needs


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