Customer Satisfaction Model
(Kano)

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Measuring client happiness. Explanation of Customer Satisfaction Model of Kano. ('84)

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Kano customer satisfaction model

What is the customer satisfaction model? Description

The customer satisfaction model from N. Kano is a quality management and marketing technique that can be used for measuring client happiness.


Kano's model of customer satisfaction distinguishes six categories of quality attributes, from which the first three actually influence customer satisfaction:

  1. Basic Factors. (Dissatisfiers. Must have.) - The minimum requirements which will cause dissatisfaction if they are not fulfilled, but do not cause customer satisfaction if they are fulfilled (or are exceeded). The customer regards these as prerequisites and takes these for granted. Basic factors establish a market entry 'threshold'.
  2. Excitement Factors. (Satisfiers. Attractive.) - The factors that increase customer satisfaction if delivered but do not cause dissatisfaction if they are not delivered. These factors surprise the customer and generate 'delight'. Using these factors, a company can really distinguish itself from its competitors in a positive way.
  3. Performance Factors. The factors that cause satisfaction if the performance is high, and they cause dissatisfaction if the performance is low. Here, the attribute performance-overall satisfaction is linear and symmetric. Typically these factors are directly connected to customers' explicit needs and desires and a company should try to be competitive here.

The additional three attributes which Kano mentions are:

  1. Indifferent attributes. The customer does not care about this feature.
  2. Questionable attributes. It is unclear whether this attribute is expected by the customer.
  3. Reverse attributes. The reverse of this product feature was expected by the customer.
     

Origin of the customer satisfaction model. History

The approach towards analyzing customer satisfaction was first published in an article by KANO, N. SERAKU, N., TAKAHASHI, F. & TSUJI, S. (1984) Attractive quality and must-be quality, Hinshitsu (Quality, the Journal of Japanese Society for Quality Control), 14, pp. 39-48.


Usage of the customer satisfaction model. Applications

Besides the obvious quality management and marketing usage, Kurt Matzler, Matthias Fuchs and Astrid Schubert wonder in their article "Employee Satisfaction: Does Kano's Model Apply?" (Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, November-December 2004) whether Kano's model on customer satisfaction factors is also relevant to describe employee satisfaction. Since employees can be perceived as internal customers. They reach the conclusion that Kano's theory is indeed useable for internal customers analysis as well.


Steps in the customer satisfaction model. Process

Kano developed a questionnaire to identify the basic, performance and excitement factors as well as the other three additional factors.

  1. For each product feature a pair of questions is formulated to which the customer can answer in one of five different ways.
  2. The first question concerns the reaction of the customer if the product shows that feature (functional question);
  3. The second question concerns the reaction of the customer if the product does NOT show this feature (dysfunctional question).
  4. By combining the answers all attributes can be classified into the six factors.

Customer Satisfaction Model Forum Help
  How to Trigger Customer Satisfaction - Variables
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  Customer Service Dynamics in the New Economy
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  What are your Customers' Needs? Really?
Customer Behavior Approaches
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  Measuring Client Happiness
How can we measure client happiness?...
     
 
  Assessing Employee Satisfaction with Kano
The article mentions that the Kano model can also be used to assess the satisfaction of employees (internal customers). How could a school administration assess the individual needs of their employees?...
     
 
  Kano's Original Paper
I've been searching for the original article, published in 1984. However, the last update of the journal web page is from 2002, and I didn't get any response to the mail I sent them one year ago.
I'm interested in the Kano's Q Statisti...
     
 
  Alternate Methods to Measure Customer Satisfaction
Are there any other approaches to measuring customer satisfaction or client happiness?...
     
 
  Other Attributes of Features of a Product or Service
Kano model basically provides very good direction on features which must be there, must not be there or could be there.
There is another kind of attributes of features that also can be used while selecting and deciding on product features.
...
     
 
  Dynamic Changes in Customer Expectations
Customers' expectations change rapidly and vary with demographic sets. How can any delivery mechanism of products and services meet the altered level of expectation at the time and point of delivery? Since the customer believes firmly that the...
     
 
  Using Kano Model for Strategic Planning
The Kano model can be used to find a new direction, so it can also be used as a method for defining a new strategy....
     
 
  Kano Model and New Products
Can you use the Kano model when testing new concepts among opinion leaders in a market research exercise? I.e. is it just suited for testing customer satisfaction for existing products/ services?...
     
 
  Customer Satisfaction as Research Driver
Customer satisfaction survey results should help in improving satisfaction and also in generating more revenue, for additional cost on research and development is minimized. By allotting priorities as per this on research directions, organizations ca...
     
 
  Customer Satisfaction and Competitive Advantage
What is the role of customer satisfaction in gaining a competitive advantage?...
     
 
  Research Software Development Industry?
What possible research ideas can be found regarding the applications of customer satisfaction model in the software development industry to maintain customer retention....
     
 
  Valid for HR Recruitment also
The same model could be applied by HR to recruit and mantain the best talents in you company....
     
 
  How to Design a Generic Model Serving Unique Customers?
As far as I know, every customer is different. How can we design a model which has a more generic approach irrespective of demographic and geographic differences?...
     
 
  Software for Measuring Customer Satisfaction
What kind of software do you require to work on a CSM survey using Kano's model?...
     
 
  Example FMCG and B2B business
Who can give an example of these 3 factors in the FMCG and B2B business. What are the basic factors, the excitement and the performance factors...? Thank you...
     
 
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Best Practices - Customer Satisfaction Model Premium
  What is Customer Satisfaction? Definitions
Customer satisfaction (CS) is the state at which the requirements are fulfilled in a way that meets the expectation of them and the after sales services are taken care of....
     
 
  Overall Satisfaction in Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire?
Should we have a question capturing "overall satisfaction" in a survey form, apart from individual product/service attribute rating? If required, what is the additional value?...
     
 

Expert Tips - Customer Satisfaction Model Premium
 

Advantages of Kanoís Model

The advantages of classifying customer requirements by means of the Customer Satisfaction Model of Kano are as follows:
- Product requirements ar...
Usage (application): Classifying quality attributes
 
 
 

Importance-Satisfaction Model

Kanoís model has a deficiency in that the degree of importance of quality attributes is neglected. As the degree of importance is a critical dimension...
Usage (application): Classifying quality attributes
 
 
 

A Closer Look Into Customer Value

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Usage (application): Customer Value Analysis, Strategic Marketing, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

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- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
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Relation Between Employee & Customer Satisfaction

Some investigations have shown an explicit realtion between employee and customer satisfaction:
- As an example, a study at Sears Roebuck & Co. s...
Usage (application): Why Employee Satisfaction Matters for Customer Satisfaction
 
 
 

Extreme Customer Trust as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Many companies are already highlighting the importance of trustworthiness by setting and sustaining honest prices and providing reasonable services. A...
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Resources - Customer Satisfaction Model Premium

Service Quality Models

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Overview of the Kano Model

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- Author / Origins: Noriaki Ka...
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Mystery Shopping

Paper by Martijn Hesselink and Ton van der Wiele discusses the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement technique...
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Five Steps to Increased Customer Satisfaction

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Introduction to Customer/Consumer Satisfaction

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2. Satisfaction focuses on fulfillment in varieties
3. What is dissatisfaction?
4. Managerial concern with sat...
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Kano Model

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The Costs of DISsatisfied Customers

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The authors investigate the...
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Customer Satisfaction in Financial Services

Paper by Mayuram S. Krishnan a.o. studies the drivers of customer satisfaction for financial services. They find that satisfaction with product offeri...
Usage (application): Financial Services
 

Summary and Introduction to the Kano Model

The Kano model (Noriaki Kano, 1984) is used to categorize and prioritize customer needs as well as to guide new product development.
Three need c...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of the Kano Model
 

Surprise... Surprise

Research by Joelle Vanhamme investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction.
The re...
Usage (application): The Influence of Surprising Consumers on their Satisfaction
 

Customer Value Management

Preesentation about Customer Value Management (CVM) by J. Blanc. It includes the following sections:
1. Definition of Customer Value
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How to Deliver Exceptional Customer Service and Client Satisfaction

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Fundamental Customer Centricity

Professor Ranjay Gulati gives his vision on what Customer Centricity is about: aligning your firm in a fundamental way around a set of customer proble...
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Consumer Behavior in the Service Sector

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The Importance of Noncustomers

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How to Understand Individual Customer Needs

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Customer Satisfaction Model Diagram

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