Cultural Dimensions
(Hofstede)

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Investigating five sorts (dimensions) of differences / value perspectives between national cultures. Explanation of Cultural Dimensions of Geert Hofstede. ('80)

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Cultural DimensionsAccording to Geert Hofstede, there is no such thing as a universal management method or management theory, valid across the whole world. Even the word 'management' has different origins and meanings in countries throughout the world. Management is not a phenomenon that can be isolated from other processes taking place in society. It interacts with what happens in the family, at school, in politics, and government. It is obviously also related to religion and to beliefs about science.


The five Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede

The cultural dimensions model of Geert Hofstede is a framework that describes five sorts (dimensions) of differences / value perspectives between national cultures:

  • Power distance. The degree of inequality among people which the population of a country considers as normal.

  • Individualism versus collectivism. The extent to which people feel they are supposed to take care for, or to be cared for by themselves, their families or organizations they belong to.

  • Masculinity versus femininity. The extent to which a culture is conducive to dominance, assertiveness and acquisition of things. Versus a culture which is more conducive to people, feelings and the quality of life.

  • Uncertainty avoidance. The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.

  • Long-term versus short-term orientation. Long-term: values oriented towards the future, like saving and persistence. Short-term: values oriented towards the past and present, like respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.

To understand management in a country, one should have both knowledge and empathy with the entire local scene. However, the scores of the unique statistical survey that Hofstede carried out should make everybody aware that people in other countries may think, feel, and act very differently from yourself, even when confronted with basic problems of society. Any person dealing with Management or Strategy is well advised to constantly remember the lessons from Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory. Human beings have a deceiving tendency to think and feel and act from their own experiences, especially when they work internationally.

 

Book: Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences : International Differences in Work-Related Values -

Book: Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind -


Cultural Dimensions Forum
  From Universalism to Poly-Culturalism
There used to be 2 paradigms of organizational culture:
  • The first is UNIVERSALISM, a belief in colorblindness and uniformity in the treatment of all people, by suppressing any individual cultural characteristics.
  • As the world be...
     
 
  Country Scores for Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions + Compare Countries
A very good way to understand the Framework & put it into perspective & practice is provided at the following webpage. It provides for a thorough insight into cultu...
     
 
  Dimensions of Hofstede Applied on a Company
Is it possible to use the Model by Hofstede on a company?
What I am looking for is a model to give insight in how a company currently works, the company culture. I might add some other things to the 5 dimensions.
I want to compare this to a...
     
 
  The Influence of Culture on Employee Motivation and Performance
I am interested in how culture influences (employee) motivation and performance.
Colleagues, can you help me out to appreciate what cultural traits (religion, formal and informal socialisation practices, how people eek out their living, kinship ...
     
 
  In-depth Explanation Dimensions of Hofstede
Hofstede gave five dimensions to help explain the culture of the country they can also be applied to organization with little modifications. The five dimensions are:
1. Small vs Big Power Distance: you identify a culture which will be eit...
     
 
  Croatia Cultural Analysis
Has anyone done a cultural analysis on Croatia using Hofstede? Thanks...
     
 
  The Value of Cultural Differences: what Matters?
Cultural differences can be sources of value to the firm. But what differences matter? Management is about increasing shareholders' value, which can be very shortsighted as far as culture, not finance, is concerned. Managers must be aware not to take...
     
 
  Seven Dimensions of Culture (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner)
Model of National Culture Differences.
Fons Trompenaars is a Dutch author and consultant in the field of cross-cultural communication. His books include: Riding the Waves of Culture, Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Building Cross-Cultural C...
     
 
  Cultural Dimensions in Management Styles
Hofstede's 5 dimensions to me determine whether a society is masculine or feminine. Our management style is determined by which type of society in which we function; feminine or masculine.
I may be wrong but it seems to me that most devel...
     
 
  Hofstede Dimensions on Malta
I would like to know whether there have been any exchanges of views or studies vis-a-vis Hofstede's 5 dimensions on Malta, being at the centre of the Mediterranean with undoubtedly many cultural influences through its long history. Thank you....
     
 
  Examples of Hofstede Five Dimensions
Can you please provide some examples of comparison between Toyota and General Motors or any two similar companies in relation to Hofstede's five dimensions of culture? Thanks...
     
 
  Supply Chain Partners' Cultural Differences
I am trying to find out how cultural differences between supply chain partners can influence the overall performance of the chain. Any ideas or recommended materials?...
     
 
  Critique of Hofstede
Does anyone know where to find good academic articles critisising Hofstedes cultural analysis? Any particular models and/or authors?...
     
 
  Hofstede vs. Hampden-Turner
Does anyone know the difference between Hofstede's cultural model and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s Seven Cultural Dimensions....
     
 
  Importance of RESPECT in Various Cultures
I believe respect for authority, age, position, has blurred and decreased - over time, sometimes because people have proven themselves unworthy of respect. Some cultures retain greater respect for adults, males, people in position, older people, etc...
     
 
  Cross Culture Management Success Factors
What are essential ingredients of success as per "Hofstede"?...
     
 
  (Practical) Usages and Application of Hofstede's theory
What are the application areas of Hofstede's theory, how can the theory be applied?...
     
 

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Best Practices - Cultural Dimensions Premium
  Doing Business in Asia | Understanding Chinese Culture
Asia’s rapid rise to economic prominence marks the beginning of a trend that will increase in the future. The Chinese economy, the second largest in the world, is currently attracting more direct investment than any other nation.
Asia’s growing ...
     
 
  I Need Another Model!!!
Hi. I am doing a contrast and comparison between Hofstede's model and another... I need to find another model to compare to... Please help me!...
     
 
  Are Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions still Valid?
Hofstede cultural dimensions are over 30 years old. Are they still valid.. that can be questioned....
     
 

Expert Tips - Cultural Dimensions Premium
 

Pitfalls and Best Practices in Managing Multicultural Teams

Brett, Behfar and Kern describe 4 common problem areas in managing multicultural teams:
1. Direct vs indirect communication
2. Troubl...
Usage (application): Multicultural Teams
 
 
 

Negotiation in Middle Eastern and Western countries

Geert Hofstede’s research on cultural dimensions provides insights into other cultures so that we can be more effective when interacting with people i...
Usage (application): Cultural Dimensions, A Practical Example
 
 
 

Implications of Cultural Differences on Accounting

Internationally recognized accounting standards, e.g. US-GAAP and IAS/IFRS, have not been adopted worldwide due primarily to cultural and societal dif...
Usage (application): Understanding differences
 
 
 

Critical Considerations when Applying Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions to Organizations and Individuals

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions are often used to compare nations and cultures, but his dimensions are also used for organizations and individuals. How...
Usage (application): Organizational Culture, Hofstede at Organization Level, Hofstede at Individual Level
 
 
 

Hofstede's 6th Dimension: Indulgence versus Restraint

There actually is already a 6th dimension identified by research and included in the most recent edition of "Culture and Organizations; Software of th...
Usage (application): Analysing Cultural Differences
 
 
 

Cultural Differences in Workplace and Office Design

It's interesting to see how cultural differences are also playing a role in the way offices are being arranged. In an article "How Culture Shapes the ...
Usage (application): Understanding International Differences
 
 
 

Status Brands: The influence of Power-distance Beliefs

Status brands are brands that can inherently raise the social prestige of its owners within a certain community or society.
Status brands are dif...
Usage (application): Branding, Brand Management, Power Distance, Brand Recognition
 
 
 

Koreans vs Germans

In a recent interview on Business Spotlight 3/08, Mrs. Mee-Rae Kim, a leading expert in German-Korean intercultural business communication projects...
Usage (application): Differences in Business Communication
 
 

Resources - Cultural Dimensions Premium

East vs West

16 Asian and Western behaviors and concepts compared via funny pictures....
Usage (application): Humorous Comparison
 

Influence of Cultural Dimensions on Consumers > CSR

Paper by Geoffrey Williams and John Zinkin explores the relationship between attitudes to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the cultural dimen...
Usage (application): Corporate Social Responsibility
 

Management Across Cultures: Managing in a Global Context

This presentation consist of six sections that together form an extensive description of management across cultures. These six sections are ordered as...
Usage (application): Cross-Cultural Management, Cultural Dimensions, Cultural Intelligence, Multicultural Teams, Global Leadership, Global HR
 

Interview Hofstede: Culture and Cultural Differences

Professor Geert Hofstede about his worries about intercultural problems.
He advices that we have to educate our children in such a way that they ...
Usage (application): Developing a Broader Perspective Towards Hofstede's Thinking
 

Hofstede's and Trompenaars' Cultural Dimensions

An explanation of:
- The Nature of Culture
- Cultural Values and Folkways
- Sub-cultures and Change
- How Cultures View Each Other...
Usage (application): Cultural Dimensions, Cultural Differences
 

Doing Business Globally and Respecting Cultural Diversity

Presentation about doing business in a global world and highlights the importance of cultural diversity and global etiquette. It includes the followin...
Usage (application): Globalization, Global Business
 

Your Organization in a Globalized World

Presentation about organizational behavior in an age of globalization. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Introduction
2. ...
Usage (application): Organizational Behavior, International, Hofstede, Organizational Culture, Globalization, Cultural Intelligence
 

Cultural Differences

Paper by Justin D. Levinson and Kaiping Peng. Behavioral economic research has tended to ignore the role of cultural differences in economic decision-...
Usage (application): Decision-making, Bias
 

5 Strategies to Manage Cultural Differences

Cultural differences can be an asset rather than a liability to a team if carefully managed and other people are approached with an open mind.
Th...
Usage (application): Cultural Differences, Cultural Intelligence, Cross-Cultural Teams, Company Culture, Hofstede
 

Bradford Brochure

Entertaining brochure aimed at prospective Bradford University School of Management students deals with cultural differences in Creative Thinking, Tea...
Usage (application): Cultural Dimensions for MBAs
 

Communication and Negotiation in a Cross-cultural Context

Presentation about Communications and Negotiations Across Different Cultures. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Outline of Pre...
Usage (application): Cross-Cultural Communication, Cross-Cultural Negotiation
 

Cultural Differences

Cross-cultural and intercultural research has shown that individuals from unlike cultures negotiate differently. Paper by Jo-Ann Harrison a.o. investi...
Usage (application): Crisis Negotiations
 

Intercultural Research

This paper by Stephan Dahl gives a short overview of the main concepts and theories in intercultural and cross-cultural communication, thus providing ...
Usage (application): Cultural Dimensions
 

Presentation Hofstede

Presentation lecture by M.W. Visscher from The Hanze Hogeschool Groningen shows the dimensions of Hofstede. Contains questions to practice....
Usage (application): Explanation Dimensions
 

Going Abroad / Cultural Intelligence Workshop

This presentation provides you with information about traveling the globe and cultural intelligence, with the main goal of helping you to understand o...
Usage (application): Cultural Intelligence, Intercultural Engagement, Cultural Adaptation
 

Corporate Diversity and Inclusion

In this introduction video, top managers of Skanska share their vision on Diversity and Inclusion and the strategic importance of these concepts for t...
Usage (application): Cross Functional Team, Organizational Culture, Globalization, Organizational Change, HRM, Cultural Dimensions
 

Leading a 21st Century Global Organization

William Fung Group, Managing Director of Li & Fung Ltd, recommends to be successful in a global business leaders have to keep several things in mind:<...
Usage (application): Global Leadership, Globalization, Multinational Corporations, MNCs
 

How to Build a Global Organizational Capability?

A. How to build a global leadership group in which people can cope with the complexity of working globally?
1. Recruit people for le...
Usage (application): MNCs, Multinationals, Multinational Companies, Globalization, International Leadership Development, Cultural Intelligenc
 

What is Corporate Culture? 4 CEOs Share their Views

Arkadi Kuhlman (ING), Tony Hsieh (Zappos), Bernie Marcus (Home Depot), Shelly Lazarus (Ogilvy & Maher) share their views on corporate cultures.
"...
Usage (application): Corporate Culture, Organization Culture, Organizational Culture, Starter for Training / Workshop
 

Cultural Influences on Negotiation

By Asad Khan...
Usage (application): Negotiations
 

Cross-cultural Marketing on the Internet

Presentation about Cross-cultural Marketing by Rafael Capurro. The main focus is on website marketing. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are included in ...
Usage (application): Marketing, International Business
 

Model of Freedom

The Model of Freedom (MoF) is a pragmatic tool that delivers insights in the culturally preferred ways of people working in global teams, and indicate...
Usage (application): Multinational Teams Challenges
 

Culture, Cultural Competence, Cultural Intelligence and the CQ

This presentation is a good introduction to culture and contains three large sections: Culture, Cultural Competenence and Cultural Intelligence and th...
Usage (application): Cultural Intelligence
 

Cultural Dimensions Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in intranets, websites, books, ma...
Usage (application): Dealing with Cultural Dimensions
 
 

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Compare with: Cultural Intelligence  |  Culture Types  |  Bottom of the Pyramid  |  Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Coaching  |  Leadership Pipeline  |  Mentoring  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Spiral Dynamics  |  Ashridge Mission Model  |  Theory X Theory Y


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