Motivationsfaktoren, Hygienefaktoren. Erklärung der Zwei-Faktoren-Theorie und KITA von Frederick Herzberg.


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Zwei-Faktoren-Theorie DiagramEntsprechend der Zwei-Faktoren-Theorie von Frederick Herzberg werden Leute durch zwei Faktoren beeinflußt. Zufriedenheit und psychologisches Wachstum sind ein Resultatsfaktor der Motivationsfaktoren. Unzufriedenheit war ein Resultat der Hygienefaktoren. Herzberg entwickelte diese Motivationstheorie während seiner Untersuchung von 200 Buchhaltern und Ingenieuren in den USA.

Die zwei Faktoren in der Theorie

  • Hygienefaktoren sind erforderlich, um sicherzustellen, dass ein Angestellter nicht unzufrieden wird. Sie verursachen nicht höhere Niveaus der Motivation, aber ohne sie gibt es Unzufriedenheit.
  • Motivationsfaktoren sind erforderlich, um einen Angestellten zu höherer Leistung zu motivieren. Diese Faktoren resultieren von internen Generatoren in Angestellten.

Typische Hygienefaktoren

  • Arbeitsbedingungen

  • Qualität der Überwachung

  • Gehalt

  • Status

  • Sicherheit

  • Firma

  • Job

  • Unternehmensrichtlinien und -leitung

  • Zwischenmenschliche Relationen

Typische Motivationsfaktoren

  • Leistung

  • Anerkennung für Leistung

  • Verantwortlichkeit für Aufgaben

  • Interessanter Job

  • Beförderung zu hochgradigeren Aufgaben

  • Wachstum

Das Kombinieren der Hygiene- und Motivationsfaktoren resultiert in vier Szenarios

  • Hohe Hygiene + hohe Motivation: Die ideale Situation, in der Angestellte in hohem Grade motiviert sind und wenig Beanstandungen haben.

  • Hohe Hygiene + niedrige Motivation: Angestellte haben wenige Beanstandungen, aber sind nicht in hohem Grade motiviert. Der Job wird als Gehaltsscheck wahrgenommen.

  • Niedrige Hygiene + hohe Motivation: Angestellte sind motiviert, haben aber viele Beanstandungen. Eine Situation, in der der Job aufregend und herausfordernd ist. Jedoch sind die Gehälter und die Arbeitsverhältnisse nicht OKAY.

  • Niedrige Hygiene + niedrige Motivation: Die schlechteste Situation. Angestellte sind nicht motiviert und haben viele Beanstandungen.

Hertzberg schlägt vor, dass Arbeit häufig angeordnet werden kann und in den folgenden Weisen angeordnet werden sollte:

  • Arbeitserweiterung
  • planmäßiger Tätigkeitswechsel und/oder
  • Tätigkeitserweiterung.

Außer der Zwei-Faktoren-Theorie ist Frederick Herzberg auch für sein Akronym KITA bekannt, das höflich als Kick In The Pants übersetzt worden ist! Herzberg sagte, dass KITA nicht Motivation produziert. Sondern nur Bewegung.

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