SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]
(Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry)

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结合顾客的服务质量需求,对企业的服务质量进行评估。 Zeithaml、Parasuraman和Berry的SERVQUAL法解析。 (‘88)

投稿人: Paul Fedoroff

目录

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SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]造成缝隙模型什么是SERVQUAL法? 释义

Valarie A. Zeithaml、A. Parasuraman和Leonard L. Berry三位学者共同提出的SERVQUAL法,是一项用来分析比较组织服务质量与顾客对服务质量的期望要求之间差距的技术。


SERVQUAL是一项纯粹经验性的方法,适于服务性组织用来提高服务质量。 该方法将目标顾客对所需服务的认识融入进考虑范畴, 并将某项服务提供系统与行业中的优秀公司来做比较, 最后,对企业真实表现与顾客期望要求之间的缺口进行分析,从而帮助企业提高服务质量。

SERVQUAL法对于顾客所认知的服务属性的重要层面的关注, 使得企业能够分清轻重缓急, 利用其有限资源优先改进最关键的服务属性。

SERVQUAL通过样本顾客调查法来收集数据, 在这些调查中,被调查者(顾客)被要求围绕服务属性的关键构面回答一系列问题。

这一方法围绕5个主要构面对服务质量进行定义:

  1. 有形性(Tangibles。 外观感受,如物理设备、人员、通讯设备等。
  2. 可靠性(Reliability。 准确完成承诺服务的能力。
  3. 回应性(Responsiveness。 乐于帮助顾客,提供快速服务。
  4. 确实性(Assurance。 员工的知识、礼貌以及他们高超的能力,反射到顾客身上就是一种信心与信任。
  5. 关怀性(Empathy。 企业要关怀顾客、提供个性化服务。

以上的五构面后来又被其他学者扩展为十构面。

  1. 有形性(Tangibles。 外观感受,如物理设备、人员、通讯设备等。
  2. 可靠性(Reliability。 准确完成承诺服务的能力。
  3. 回应性(Responsiveness。 乐于帮助顾客,提供快速服务。
  4. 胜任性(Competence。 拥有服务所必须的知识和技能。
  5. 礼貌(Courtesy。 友善、礼貌、尊重顾客。
  6. 信用性(Credibility。 服务诚实、可信。
  7. 安全性(Feel Secure。 让顾客没有疑虑、危险或冒险之感。
  8. 接近性(Access。 易于接触和接近。
  9. 沟通性(Communication。 聆听顾客并采纳他们的观点。 并是顾客及时得到服务的信息。 使用顾客所明白的语言。
  10. 理解顾客(Understanding the customer。 努力了解顾客以及他们的需求。

SERVQUAL方法的起源。 历史

在定性研究的基础上,三位学者得出结论,不管是对于服务性行业的哪个部门, 顾客在对SERVQUAL服务质量构面重要性的认识是一致的: 可靠性最为重要,有形性最不重要。


SERVQUAL的运用。 应用

  • SERVQUAL法广泛运用于服务性行业,用以理解目标顾客的服务需求和感知, 并为企业提供了一套管理和量度服务质量的方法。
  • 企业内部,用SERVQUAL来理解员工对服务质量的感知, 从而达到改进服务的目的。

SERVQUAL的步骤。 流程

这一方法最根本的一项工作是进行顾客样本调查,以便收集和了解顾客对服务质量的感知, 并进一步结合组织提供的服务,对顾客感知进行评估,找出服务缺口。

围绕服务质量的每一个构面,要求顾客回答一系列的相关问题,以决定:

  • 每一服务质量构面的相对重要程度;
  • 顾客的服务期望值与行业内的优秀企业(标杆)保持一致;
  • 企业服务质量的具体量度办法。

通过评估顾客期望的服务和认知的服务,企业就能够找到服务缺口,并能够把握服务质量构面之间的轻重次序(改进服务的指导标准), 这就使得企业能够集中有限的资源用于提高最重要的服务质量构面。 在服务成本得到有效控制的同时,最大程度地提高服务质量。
 

SERVQUAL法的优点。 优点

大多数消费者都会对服务需求进行全面的和深入的检阅,所以SERVQUAL法提供了一个非常有用的帮助企业整体提高服务质量。 SERVQUAL法提供了一系列详尽的信息:

  • 顾客感知的服务(顾客心中的标杆)
  • 顾客认知的服务
  • 顾客的评论和建议
  • 员工对于顾客感知和满意度的认识

SERVQUAL的局限。 缺点

已有学者对服务质量的五构面的有效性提出怀疑, 还有人对该方法是否适用于所有服务性行业也提出怀疑。 根据Thomas P. Van Dyke、 Victor R. Prybutok、Leon A. Kappelman三位学者的研究,SERVQUAL作为一项测量方法,在可靠性、区别效度、幅合效度以及预测效度等方面都存有问题。 这些研究结果提醒我们,一方面在实践中必须审慎运用SERVQUAL值,另一方面需要做进一步的探索和研究,找出评估信息服务业服务质量的更有效的办法。


SERVQUAL的前提。 条件

  • 顾客调查的结果是正确的。 该模型的有效性基于经验研究的结果。 目前,其他学者的经验研究对SERVQUAL的原有发现和结论提出了挑战。
  • 顾客需求是可以捕捉和记录的,在整个研究过程中并保持不变。

参考书: Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry - Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations.[中译本《服务营销》,三联书店,1998] - -

Journal: Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml (1988) - SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality - Journal of retailing 64 (1) Spring. 12-40 -

Journal: Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml (1991) - Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale - Journal of retailing 67 (4) Winter. 420-450 -

Journal: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) - A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research - Journal of marketing 49 (4) Fall. 41-50 -

Journal: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994) - Alternative scales for measuring service quality: A comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria - Journal of marketing 70 (3) Fall. 201-230 -


SERVQUAL 小组


小组 (12名成员)


SERVQUAL论坛  

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管理资讯一站式平台


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