Förväntansteori
(Vroom)

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Expectancy Theory (Förväntansteori)

Vad är Förväntansteori/Expectancy Theory? Beskrivning

Förväntansteori av Victor Vroom handlar om motivation och styrning. Vroomsteorin antar att beteende är ett resultatet utifrån medvetna val bland de alternativ som finns. Syftet med valen är att maximera nöje och minimera smärta. Tillsammans med Edward Lawler och Lyman Porter, så föreslog Vroom att förhållandet mellan personens beteende på arbetet och deras målsättningar inte var så enkelt, som först föreställts av andra forskare. Vroom insåg att en anställds prestation baseras på individuella faktorer liksom personlighet, kunskaper, vetskap, erfarenhet och förmågor.


Förväntansteori talar om att individer har olika sorters mål och kan motiveras om de har bestämda förväntningar som kan uppnås.


Förväntansteorins förväntningar

  • Det finns en positiv korrelation mellan ansträngningar och prestation,
  • Förväntad prestation kommer att resultera i en önskvärd belöning,
  • Belöning kommer att tillfredsställa ett viktigt behov,
  • Lusten att tillfredsställa behovet är starkt nog till att göra ansträngningen meningsfull.

Vroom Förväntansteori baseras på följande tre övertygelser.


Förväntansteori övertygelser

  1. Bindning (Valens). Refererar till de emotionella riktningar som personer intar med hänsyn till resultat [belöningar]. Djupet av önskan hos en anställd till yttre- [pengar, befordran, fritid, fördelar], eller inre [tillfredsställelse] belöningar. Ledningen måste upptäcka vad de anställda uppskattar mest.

  2. Förväntan. Anställda har olika förväntningar och nivåer av förtroende för vad de är kapabla till att göra. Ledningen måste upptäcka vilka resurser, utbildning eller tillsyn de anställda behöver.

  3. Medverkan. Uppfattningen hos de anställda, huruvida de kommer att få det som de faktiskt önskar sig, även om det har utlovats av en chef. Ledningen måste se till att löften och belöningar fullgörs och att de anställda är medvetna om det.

Vroom föreslår att en anställds tilltro omkring Förväntan, Medverkan och Valens samspelar psykologiskt. På detta sätt skapar de en motivationsstyrka som är sådan att en anställd kommer att agera på det sätt som kommer att skapa glädje och att undvika smärta. Denna styrka kan ”beräknas” via en formel:


Förväntansteoriformeln


Motivation = Bindning x Förväntan (Medverkan).


Denna formeln kan användas till att indikera och kunna förutsäga saker som: jobbtillfredsställelse, val av sysselsättning, sannolikheten till att bli kvar i ett jobb och den ansträngning som någon kommer att satsa på sitt arbete.


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Experttips

Avancerad insikt om Expectancy Theory (Engelsk). Här hittar du professionella råd från experter.


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Informationskällor

Olika informationskällor om Förväntansteori. Här hittar du powerpoints, videor, nyheter etc. som du kan använda i dina egna föreläsningar och workshops.


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Jämför Förväntansteori på motivation med:   Behovshierarki av Maslow  |  Betjänanande Ledarskap  |  Behovsteorin (McClelland)  |  Hawthorne Effekten  |  Konkurrerande Värden Ramverk Quinn  |  Attributionsteori  |  Inramning, Framing (Tversky)  |  Tvåfaktorsteorin Hertzberg   |  Teori X Teori Y  |  Ledningsmatris  |  ERG Teori Alderfer  |  Ledarskapets Övergångsmodell Tannenbaum och Schmidt  |  Målvägsteori (Path-Goal Theori) House  |  Ledarskapsstilar, Ledarstilar  |  Situationsanpassat Ledarskap  |  Afrikanskt Ledarskapsmodell av Banhegyi   |  Coaching, Coachande, Coachning, Rådgivare  |  Mentoring (Mentorskap)


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