Verwachtingstheorie
(Vroom)

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Samenvatting
Verwachtingstheorie

Wat is de Expectancy Theory (Verwachtingsheorie)? Beschrijving

De Verwachtingstheorie van Victor Vroom gaat over motivatie en management. De theorie van Vroom veronderstelt dat het gedrag een resultaat is van bewuste keuzes uit alternatieven. Het doel van de keuzes is plezier te maximaliseren en pijn te minimaliseren. Samen met Edward Lawler en Lyman Porter, gesuggereerd werd Vroom dat de relatie tussen het gedrag van mensen op het werk en hun doelstellingen niet zo eenvoudig zoals was eerst verondersteld door andere wetenschappers. Vroom realiseerde zich dat de prestatie van een werknemer op individuele factoren is gebaseerd, zoals persoonlijkheid, vaardigheden, kennis, ervaring en bekwaamheden.


De verwachtingstheorie zegt dat individuen verschillende verzamelingen van doelstellingen hebben, en dat zij kunnen worden gemotiveerd als zij bepaalde verwachtingen hebben.


Verwachtingen in de Expectancy Theory

  • Er is een positieve correlatie tussen inspanningen en prestatie,
  • Een gunstige prestatie zal resulteren in een wenselijke beloning,
  • De beloning zal een belangrijke behoefte tevredenstellen,
  • De wens om de behoefte tevreden te stellen is sterk genoeg om de inspanning de moeite waard te maken.

De Verwachtingstheorie van Vroom is gebaseerd op de volgende drie overtuigingen.


De overtuigingen van de Expectancy Theory

  1. Valentie. Verwijst naar de emotionele oriëntaties welke mensen erop na houden met betrekking tot resultaten [beloningen]. De diepte van de behoefte van een werknemer aan extrinsieke beloningen [geld, promotie, vrije tijd, voordelen] of intrinsieke beloningen[tevredenheid]. Het management moet ontdekken wat werknemers waarderen.

  2. Verwachting. Werknemers hebben verschillende verwachtingen van waartoe zij in staat zijn, en hebben verschillende niveaus van vertrouwen over waartoe zij in staat zijn. Het management moet ontdekken welke middelen, opleiding, of supervisie de werknemers nodig hebben.

  3. Instrumentaliteit. De perceptie van werknemers of zij echt zullen ontvangen wat zij willen, zelfs als het door een manager is beloofd. Het management moet ervoor zorgen dat de beloften van beloningen worden vervuld en dat de werknemers zich daarvan bewust zijn.

Vroom stelt voor dat de overtuigingen van een werknemer over Verwachting, Instrumentaliteit, en Valentie psychologisch op elkaar inwerken. Op deze wijze creëren zij een motiverende kracht, welke de werknemer op een bepaalde manier zal doen handelen, zodanig dat de handelingen plezier geeft en pijn vermijdt. Deze kracht kan via een formule worden "berekend":


De Verwachtingstheorie formule


Motivatie = Valentie x Verwachting (Instrumentaliteit).


Deze formule kan worden gebruikt om op dingen te wijzen en deze te voorspellen, zoals: werktevredenheid, beroepskeuze, de waarschijnlijkheid van het blijven in een baan, en de inspanning die men op het werk zou kunnen besteden.


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Expert Tips

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Informatiebronnen

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Vergelijk met de Verwachtingstheorie over motivatie:   Pyramide van Maslow  |  Dienend Leiderschap  |  Behoeftentheorie (Theory of Needs)  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Concurrerende Waardenraamwerk  |  Attributietheorie  |  Framen (Inkaderen)  |  Motivatie-Hygiëne Theorie Hertzberg   |  Theorie X Theorie Y  |  Managementraster  |  ERG Theorie  |  Leiderschapcontinuum  |  Path-Goal Theorie  |  Leiderschapsstijlen  |  Situationeel Leiderschap  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Coachen  |  Mentoring


Keer terug naar Management Discipline: Verandering & Organisatie  |  Human Resources  |  Leiderschap


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