Expectancy Theory
(Vroom)

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概要
Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theoryは何であるか。 記述

勝利者VroomのExpectancy Theoryは刺激および経営を取扱う。 Vroomの理論は行動が代わり間の意識した選択からの結果であると仮定する。 選択の目的は喜びを最大にし、苦痛を最小にすることである。 エドワードLawlerおよびLymanのPorterとともに、Vroomは最初に他の科学者によって想像された程に簡単仕事の人々の行動と目的間の関係がでなかった提案した。 Vroomは従業員のパフォーマンスが人格、技術、知識、経験および能力のような個々の要因に基づいていることをわかった。


期待理論はある特定の予想を有すれば個人に目的の異なったセットがあり、独創力のあると言う。


Expectancy Theoryの予想

  • 努力とパフォーマンス間に肯定的な相関関係がある、
  • 好ましいパフォーマンスは好ましい報酬で起因する、
  • 報酬は重要な必要性を満たす、
  • 必要性を満たす欲求は十分に強い努力を価値があるようにするには。

VroomのExpectancy Theoryは次の3確信に基づいている。


Expectancy Theoryの確信

  1. 原子価。 人々が結果[報酬]に関して保持する感情的なオリエンテーションを参照する。 外部[お金、昇進、フリータイム、利点]または本質的な[満足の]報酬のための従業員のほしいほしのの深さ。 経営は従業員が認めるものを発見しなければならない。

  2. 期待。 することができるものについての従業員に信任の異なった予想そしてレベルがある。 経営はどんな資源、訓練、または監督を従業員が必要とするか発見しなければならない。

  3. Instrumentality。 マネジャーによって約束されても、望むものを彼らが実際に受け取るかどうか従業員の認識。 経営は報酬の約束が達成されること、そして従業員がそれに気づいていることを保障しなければならない。

Vroomは期待、Instrumentalityおよび相互原子価についての従業員の確信心理学的に提案する。 このように彼らは従業員が喜びを持って来、苦痛を避ける方法で行動すること動機上の力を、そのような物創造する。 この力はフォーミュラによって「」計算することができる:


Expectancy Theoryのフォーミュラ


刺激=原子価Xの期待(Instrumentality)。


このフォーミュラが次のように事を示し、予測するのに使用することができる: 仕事にとどまる仕事の満足度、職業選択、可能性、およびが仕事で費やすかもしれない努力。


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刺激のExpectancy Theoryを下記のもののと比較した:  Hierachy of Needs  |  使用人リーダーシップ  |  必要性の理論  |  Hawthorneの効果  |  Competing Values Framework  |  Attribution Theory  |  Framing  |  Two Factor Theory Hertzberg   |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Managerial Grid  |  ERG Theory  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Leadership Styles  |  Situational Leadership  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Coaching  |  Mentoring


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