Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza
(Vroom)

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Teoria della Aspettativa

Che cosa è la Teoria della Aspettativa? Descrizione

La Teoria della Aspettativa di Victor Vroom tratta la motivazione e la gestione. La teoria del Vroom suppone che il comportamento è un risultato di scelte coscienti fra le alternative. Lo scopo delle scelte è di massimizzare il piacere e minimizzare il dolore. Insieme ad Edward Lawler ed a Lyman Porter, Vroom ha suggerito che il rapporto fra il comportamento della gente a lavoro ed i loro obiettivi non era così semplice come avevano immaginato altri scienziati. Vroom si è reso conto che la performance di un impiegato dipende da fattori individuali quali personalità, competenze, conoscenza, esperienza ed abilità.


La teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza dice che gli individui hanno tipi differenti di obiettivi e possono essere motivati se hanno determinate aspettative.


Attese di Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza

  • C'è una correlazione positiva fra gli sforzi e le performance,
  • Una performance favorevole provocherà una ricompensa desiderabile,
  • La ricompensa soddisfarà un bisogno importante,
  • Il desiderio di soddisfare il bisogno è abbastanza forte da rendere lo sforzo utile.

La Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza di Vroom è basata sulle seguenti tre credenze.


Credenze della Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza

  1. Valenza. Si riferisce agli orientamenti irrazionali che le persone hanno riguardo ai risultati [ricompense]. La profondità del desiderio di un impiegato per le ricompense estrinseche [soldi, promozioni, tempo libero, benefit] o intrinseche [soddisfazione]. La gestione deve scoprire cosa apprezzano di più gli impiegati.

  2. Aspettativa. Gli impiegati hanno differenti aspettative e livelli di confidenza su quello che sono capaci di fare. La gestione deve scoprire di che risorse, formazione, o controllo gli impiegati hanno bisogno.

  3. Strumentalità. La percezione degli impiegati di ricevere realmente quello che vogliono, anche se è stato promesso da un manager. La gestione deve assicurare che le promesse di ricompense vengano compiute e che gli impiegati sono consapevoli di ciò.

Vroom sostiene che le credenze di un impiegato sulla Aspettativa, Strumentalità e Valenza interagiscono psicologicamente. In questo modo creano una forza motivazionale, tale che l'impiegato agirà in modo che porta il piacere ed evita il dolore. Questa forza può “essere calcolata„  attraverso una formula:


Formula della Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza


Motivazione= Valenza x Aspettativa(Strumentalità).


Questa formula può essere usata per indicare e predire: soddisfazione professionale, scelta occupazionale, la probabilità di rimanere in un lavoro e lo sforzo che ognuno decide di dedicare al lavoro.


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Discussioni

Forum sul Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza.


 

Teoria dei Bisogni di Maslow contro la Teoria dell'Aspettativa di Vroom
Diversa dalla Teoria dei Bisogni di Maslow, la Teoria dell'Aspettativa di Vroom NON presuppone a priori che ci sono determinati bisogni in un certo ordine gerarchico. Nella TdA i risultati sono percep...
4
 
1 commenti
🔥 NUOVO Organizzazione Aziendale
Relativamente alla Teoria della Aspettativa, avrei bisogno di risolvere un problema: Si calcoli la forza motivazionale di un attore che abbia un'aspettativa di ottenere dal suo impegno una prestazi...
1
 
1 commenti
How to Deal with Demotivated Employees: Learned Helplessness
It is easy to understand the principle of "Learned Helplessness" (LH) by imagining an elephant trainer who trains a baby elephant. The training commences by initially tying a baby elephant's leg to a ...
18
 
14 commenti
What Precisely is Expectancy? Definition
According to Vroom, Expectancy is the 'momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome'.
It can range from zero (belief that the outcome ...
15
 
2 commenti
Expectancy Theory versus Human Needs?
There are many different ways to reach goals, but I believe that the NEEDS have more weight than the EXPECTANCY. So what about Maslow thinking of human behavior?...
13
 
6 commenti
Effort Leads to Performance, But Only to a Certain Extent
This is true in most cases, the more you put in the more you get out. But there are times when this is not the case.
If you put in all of your effort you do perform better, but it is hard to see ...
12
 
Misunderstandings About Motivation
Motivation is found to be hard by many people. I would like to put across a number of misconceptions around motivation:
People are primarily motivated financially. Motivation can be done even ...
9
 
1 commenti
What Precisely is Valence? Definition of Valence
Hi, for me it's hard to understand "valence"? It's not in my English dictionary. Can you give me some help?...
8
 
2 commenti
Human Motivation Lies Within
A human can never be motivated. You can just push a bit and show a way. A person always needs to be self-motivated to perform best and be successful.

We as a company in HR spend a lot of ef...
8
 
4 commenti
Problems with Expectancy Theory. Disadvantages
Two major issues with Expectancy Theory is that it breaks down if employees do not believe in their capability or in the reward.
Other leadership, motivation skills and theories are needed first ...
6
 
2 commenti
Motivation Should be a Two-way Process
I think the motivation process between the manager and the employees is exchangeable, i.e., bosses can and should motivate their subordinates in various ways, but at the same time the subordinates can...
6
 
Measuring Motivation:The PIAV Assessment
When it comes to looking at the individual there is no substitute (personal bias here) for the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values (PIAV) assessment.
It is a validated tool (based on the wor...
6
 
The Importance of the Goals in Motivating Workers
I believe that success in motivating employees is well explained in McGregor's example in which, to the question: "What are you doing?", three stone masons working on a construction site answer differ...
5
 
1 commenti
Identify your Passion for Success
In my opinion, success comes from loving what you do. Is your current work your passion?
When you study highly successful people, you understand that they have at least one thing in common, they ...
5
 
2 commenti

Migliori Pratiche

Gli argomenti più votati su Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza. Qui troverai le idee più preziose e suggerimenti pratici.


How Can You Motivate Knowledge Workers?
In the current 'knowledge era', the question what motivates knowledge workers, and, being a manager, how you should motivate and manage them is important.
In their article "The Progress of Small...
62
 
37 commenti

What Motivates Employees? The Answer Depends (Partly) on their Generation
The age of retirement has been moved to 60, 65, 70 years and beyond. Where each generation used to pass the baton; there is no baton being passed anymore.
We can now find multiple generations (up...
50
 
50 commenti

All 3 Elements in Expectancy Theory are Mandatory
Will your employee work hard for a raise?
Of course management science is not mathematics. But a consequence that should not be overlooked of Vroom's formula M = V * E * I is that even if only on...
44
 
3 commenti

Why People Want to Become Leaders? Motivations to Lead
Leadership roles in an organization are obviously pivotal to the successful and smooth functioning of the organization in terms of both tactical (day-to-day) issues and strategic (long-term) perspecti...
26
 
20 commenti

Motivation in Non-Profit Organizations
I'm having difficulties finding a theory to help me research motivation, and the importance of it, in a non-profit organization. Could someone please give me some advice for the best possible theory? ...
20
 
6 commenti

Is your Job Meaningful?
Finding a purpose in your job is important for millennials and in fact for everybody.
Nevertheless, many people have a job that they don't regard as meaningful. Therefore, they are not completely...
17
 
17 commenti

Controlling the Minds of Employees
I think there can be several way to achieve goals, however what's more important is to have control over the mind of the team members. And that's up to the managers how they carry their team....
17
 
6 commenti

Extended Version of the Expectancy Theory (Lambright)
Lambright (2010) addresses an important weakness of the expectancy theory: it makes no distinction between certainty and uncertainty conditions. Indeed, the expectancy theory does not take into accoun...
15
 
Motivating an Employee by Valence
According to Vroom, Valence refers to a preference for one outcome over another. It can be positive, neutral or negative. For example, if an employee strongly desires a promotion, and believes that a...
14
 
3 commenti

Motivation is Owned by the Individual
Motivation is a slippery slope. I believe Wlodkowski who says: one cannot directly motivate another since motivation is owned by the individual; it comes from within us. It's the same as telling one t...
6
 
5 commenti

Consigli degli Esperti

Approfondimenti avanzati sul Expectancy Theory (Inglese). Qui troverai consigli professionali di esperti.


4 Steps to Motivate your Employees...

Using Expectancy Theory in your Department / Group
As a manager, you can motivate your employees applying Expectancy Theory. Take these 4 steps: 1. Find out what each ind...

It's All About Perceptions!

Implementing Expectancy Theory
Note that what matters in expectancy theory are the perceptions of the person who is to be motivated, not the rea...

Expectancy can be Unexpected!

On Experts and Surprises
Be careful with assuming what the expectancy of a person (employee) is going to be: Zakary Tormala did research on how ...

Relationships in Expectancy Theory

Understanding / Teaching Expectancy Theory
The Expectancy theory focuses on three relationships: 1. Effort<>Performance relationship. The probability perceived b...

The Effort -> Performance Relationship

Coaching, mentoring
As mentioned in the summary, one of the expectations of Vroom’s theory is the positive relationship between effort and p...

Reasons Why People are Doing Voluntary Work

Expectancy Theory, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Perspective, Volunteers
Voluntary work has long been seen as an activity performed mainly by unemployed individuals –mostly women, both in their...

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a W...

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a...
Fonti di Informazione

Varie fonti di informazioni su Teoria dell'Aspettativa-Valenza. Qui troverai powerpoint, video, notizie, ecc. da utilizzare nelle tue lezioni e seminari.


Human Motivation

Employee Motivation
Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Motivation. Topics: 1. What is motivation? 2. How do needs motivate peo...

Overview of Content and Process Motivation Theories

Motivation, Needs, Incentives, Goal Setting, Behavior
Overview presentation of the major content motivation theories (Hierarchy of Needs; Acquired Needs theory; Two-Factor Th...

External and Internal Motivation

Motivation
Presentation about motivation, from a psychological perspective. The presentation includes the following sections: 1. P...

Reasons and Secrets of Employee Retention

Employee Retention, Attrition
This presentation is about Employee Retention and includes the following sections: 1. Introduction 2. Reasons for Empl...

Intrinsic Motivation versus Extrensic Motivation

Initial Understanding of Motivator Types and Consequences
How can I do a better job of motivating a team? Dan Pink and Dan Ariely make a distinction between extrinsic motivators...

Attitude, Motivation and Persuasion

Persuasion Theory, Managing Behavior
This presentation by S.J. Grant is about attitudes, motivation and how affects persuasion. The following sections are in...

Voluntary Activities of Employees | Employee Volunteerism

Employee Motivation, Employee Volunteerism, Employee Commitment, Shared Value, CSR, Corporate Reputation
Presentation about employee volunteerism, including the following sections: 1. What is employee volunteerism 2. Employ...

Work-Family Conflicts and Work-Life Policies

Performance Management, Work-Life Balance, HR, Programs
This presentation is about Work-Family Conflicts and Employee Performance. The presentation includes the following secti...

Introduction and Summary of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Initial Understanding of the Expectancy Theory, Trainings, Workshops
Inspiring explanation of Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory using examples from the world of basketball and the meaning. E...

Forecasting motivation

Calculating motivation
Some interesting formulas to calculate both negative and positive motivation....

Expectancy Theory Diagram

Employee Motivation
Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in ...

Performance Measurement, Expectancy and Agency Theory

Performance Measurement
Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the realm of the linear agency mod...

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