Expectancy Theory
(Vroom)

Knowledge Center

   

An employee's performance is based on individual factors. Explanation of Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom. ('64)

Contents

  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

Expectancy Theory

What is Expectancy Theory? Description

The Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom deals with motivation and management. Vroom's theory assumes that behavior is a result from conscious choices among alternatives. The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.


The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations.


Expectancy Theory expectations

  • There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance,
  • Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward,
  • The reward will satisfy an important need,
  • The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.

Vroom's Expectancy Theory is based upon the following three beliefs.


Expectancy Theory beliefs

  1. Valence. Refers to the emotional orientations which people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, free time, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards. Management must discover what employees appreciate.

  2. Expectancy. Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision the employees need.

  3. Instrumentality. The perception of employees whether they will actually receive what they desire, even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that.

Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically. In this way they create a motivational force, such that the employee will act in a way that brings pleasure and avoids pain. This force can be 'calculated' via a formula:


Expectancy Theory formula


Motivation = Valence x Expectancy(Instrumentality).


This formula can be used to indicate and predict things as: job satisfaction, occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job, and the effort that one might expend at work.


Expectancy Theory Forum
  Making your Life Meaningful
Finding a purpose in a job has been found to be an...
     
 
  Can Perpetual Demotivation Be Reversed?
Demotivation is like the decomposition process, on...
     
 
  Human Motivation Lies Within
A human can never be motivated. You can jus...
     
 
  Extended Version of the Expectancy Theory (Lambright)
Lambright (2010) addresses an important weakness o...
     
 
  Creative Chaos is Conducive to Motivation
When one considers motivation in business organiza...
     
 
  Motivation is Owned by the Individual
Motivation is a slippery slope. I believe Wlodkows...
     
 
  Measuring Motivation:The PIAV Assessment
When it comes to looking at the individual there i...
     
 
  Motivation Should be a Two-way Process
I think the motivation process between the manager...
     
 
  Small Motivation Tips
I would be more interested in easy small things to...
     
 
  Effort Leads to Performance
This is true in most cases, the more you put in th...
     
 
  Motivating Workers: McGregor´s Example
I believe that success in motivating employees is ...
     
 
  Misunderstandings About Motivation
Motivation is found to be hard by many people but ...
     
 
  Expectancy versus Needs?
There are many different ways to reach goals, but ...
     
 
  Applications of the Expectancy Theory
This is a very good summary of Expectancy Theory, ...
     
 
  Problems with Expectancy Theory. Disadvantages
A problem with Expectancy Theory is that it bre...
     
 
  How to Align Vroom's Theory with Psychological Contract in Disengaged Employees?
Has anyone/organisation successfully achieved mean...
     
 
  Satisfaction from Achieving Goals
Satisfaction will usually stem from achievement of...
     
 

Expectancy Theory Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group

Expectancy Theory Education & Events


Find Trainings, Seminars and Events


Best Practices - Expectancy Theory Premium
  What Motivates Employees? The Answer Depends (Partly) on their Generation
The age of retirement has been moved to 60, 65, 70...
     
 
  How Can You Motivate Knowledge Workers?
In the current 'knowledge era', the question what ...
     
 
  Controlling the Minds of Employees
I think there can be several way to achieve goals,...
     
 
  Motivation in Non-Profit Organizations
I'm having difficulties finding a theory to help m...
     
 

Expert Tips - Expectancy Theory Premium
 

4 Steps to Motivate your Employees...

As a manager, you can motivate your employees appl...
Usage (application): Using Expectancy Theory in your Department / Group
 
 
 

It's All About Perceptions!

Note that what matters in expectancy theory are th...
Usage (application): Implementing Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

Expectancy can be Unexpected!

Be careful with assuming what the expectancy of a ...
Usage (application): On Experts and Surprises
 
 
 

Relationships in Expectancy Theory

The Expectancy theory focuses on three relationsh...
Usage (application): Understanding / Teaching Expectancy Theory
 
 
 

The Effort -> Performance Relationship

As mentioned in the summary, one of the expectatio...
Usage (application): Coaching, mentoring
 
 
 

Reasons Why People are Doing Voluntary Work

Voluntary work has long been seen as an activity p...
Usage (application): Expectancy Theory, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Perspective, Volunteers
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing ...
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 

Resources - Expectancy Theory Premium

Human Motivation

Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Moti...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 

Overview of Content and Process Motivation Theories

Overview presentation of the major content moti...
Usage (application): Motivation, Needs, Incentives, Goal Setting, Behavior
 

External and Internal Motivation

Presentation about motivation, from a psychologica...
Usage (application): Motivation
 

Reasons and Secrets of Employee Retention

This presentation is about Employee Retention and ...
Usage (application): Employee Retention, Attrition
 

Intrinsic Motivation versus Extrensic Motivation

How can I do a better job of motivating a team? Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Motivator Types and Consequences
 

Attitude, Motivation and Persuasion

This presentation by S.J. Grant is about attitudes...
Usage (application): Persuasion Theory, Managing Behavior
 

Voluntary Activities of Employees | Employee Volunteerism

Presentation about employee volunteerism, includin...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation, Employee Volunteerism, Employee Commitment, Shared Value, CSR, Corporate Reputation
 

Work-Family Conflicts and Work-Life Policies

This presentation is about Work-Family Conflicts a...
Usage (application): Performance Management, Work-Life Balance, HR, Programs
 

Introduction and Summary of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Inspiring explanation of Victor Vroom's Expectancy...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of the Expectancy Theory, Trainings, Workshops
 

Forecasting motivation

Some interesting formulas to calculate both negati...
Usage (application): Calculating motivation
 

Expectancy Theory Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 

Performance Measurement, Expectancy and Agency Theory

Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance meas...
Usage (application): Performance Measurement
 
 

News about Expectancy Theory


     
 

News about Motivation Employees


     
 

Videos about Expectancy Theory


     
 

Videos about Motivation Employees


     
 

Presentations about Expectancy Theory


     
 

Presentations about Motivation Employees


     
 

Books about Expectancy Theory


     
 

Books about Motivation Employees


     
 

More about Expectancy Theory


     
 

More about Motivation Employees


     

Compare with the Expectancy Theory on Motivation with:  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Servant-Leadership  |  Theory of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Competing Values Framework  |  Attribution Theory  |  Framing  |  Two Factor Theory Herzberg   |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Managerial Grid  |  ERG Theory  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Leadership Styles  |  Situational Leadership  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Coaching  |  Mentoring


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us | Privacy | Terms of Service
Copyright 2017 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Last updated: 19-11-2017. All names tm by their owners.