Variable Costing

Knowledge Center

12manage is looking for students / contributors...


Valuing inventory including only the variable manufacturing costs. Explanation of Direct Costing. Variable Costing. Marginal Costing.


  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

What is Variable Costing? Description

The variable costing method is an inventory valuation/costing model, that includes only the variable manufacturing costs in the cost of a unit of product. It is also called: direct costing or marginal costing.

Variable manufacturing costs are

  • Direct materials. Those materials that become an integral part of a finished product and can be conveniently traced into it.
  • Direct labor. Those factory labor costs that can be easily traced into individual units of product. Also called: touch labor.
  • Only variable manufacturing overhead costs are included.

The entire amount of fixed costs are expenses in the year incurred.

Variable Costing is also referred to as the Direct Costing method or the Marginal Costing method.

Should Fixed Manufacturing Costs be Included in Inventories?

  • Advocates of Absorption Costing say that it should, because all of the production costs are needed to create the products. Thus, they have "future economic benefits."
  • Advocates of Variable Costing argue that in order for fixed manufacturing costs to be an asset, it has to meet a "future cost avoidance" criteria. Much in the same way as prepaid insurance. In the case of fixed manufacturing costs, they do not meet this criteria because they are incurred each time the production line opens. Thus, they need to be expenses in that period. Only variance expenses are inventoried.

Consequences of using Variable Costing for Profit calculation

The difference is important for calculating profit when the beginning and ending inventory levels are different.

  1. If beginning & ending inventory levels are equal: absorption costing profit = variable costing profit.
  2. If inventory levels are run down over the period: variable costing profit will be higher than absorption costing profit.
  3. If inventory levels are increased over the period: absorption costing profit will be higher than variable costing profit.

Variable Costing Forum
  Is Depreciation regarded as a Direct Cost?
Is depreciation regarded as a part of direct costi...
  Variable Costing Definition
It's a cost that is directly related to the produc...
  Variable Costing for Decision-making
We are a group of professors and students at UCEL ...

Variable Costing Special Interest Group

Special Interest Group

Variable Costing Education & Events

Find Trainings, Seminars and Events

Best Practices - Variable Costing Premium
  Practical Direct Costing
It Solves the Problem of Classification of Variabl...

Expert Tips - Variable Costing Premium

Resources - Variable Costing Premium

Absorption versus Marginal CostingSign up

Presentation that compares Absorption Costing with...
Usage (application): Accounting, Controlling, Budgeting

Incentives for Effcient Inventory Management: The Role of Historical CostSign up

Paper by Tim Baldenius and Stefan Reichelstein exa...
Usage (application): Historical Cost Accounting, Inventory Management

News about Variable CostingSign up


News about Inventory ValuationSign up


Videos about Variable CostingSign up


Videos about Inventory ValuationSign up


Presentations about Variable CostingSign up


Presentations about Inventory ValuationSign up


Books about Variable CostingSign up


Books about Inventory ValuationSign up


More about Variable CostingSign up


More about Inventory ValuationSign up


Compare with Variable Costing: Absorption Costing  |  Activity Based Costing

Return to Management Hub: Decision-making & Valuation  |  Finance & Investing  |  Supply Chain & Quality

More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here

About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2018 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Last updated: 14-8-2018. All names ™ of their owners.