Framing[心理定格] (Tversky)

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总结

Framing[心理定格]例子 什么是心理定格? 释义

通过运用心理定格技术,我们能够将他人的注意力集中到某一相关语义的特定方面。 尽管“心理定格”这一术语由FairhurstSarr二人提出,但这一理论真正的创始人却是Amos TverskyDaniel Kahneman


传统的理想选择理论(Rational ChoiceTheory)的核心思想是人们总是努力做出最有可能的理性选择。心理定格理论与理想选择理论完全不同,它认为表述事情的框架结构(定格),对人们的选择与决定会产生很大影响。

心理定格Frames)在这里是一个抽象概念,是一种社会意义的组织和架构。 在现实生活中,受众对新闻的感知就受心理定格影响, 媒介的议程设定理论(Agenda Setting Theory)发现,定格形式不仅决定了受众对事件的认知结果(是什么),而且还决定了受众的认知过程(怎么想)。
 

心理定格反映了交流沟通的质量,即引导人们接受设定的意项,而非其他。 心理定格也是一种交流过程,通过这一过程,信息资源的公布就能达到预想的政治效果,引发预设的公共争议,等等。


可以说,心理定格在很大程度上影响着人的思想认识,所以准确理解、把握心理定格理论就显得非常重要。 现在,就让我们体验一下心理定格的实际影响,请参阅右图,看看自己是否能够抵挡住心理定格的作用。


当然,心理定格并非坏事,它是我们在人际沟通过程中无法避免、无处不在的一个事实存在。 它存在于大众传媒中,媒体利用它使得新闻信息表达某一特定意项。 它存在于政党政治中,政客利用它把政治事件刻画上特殊含义。 它存在于宗教活动中,它还存在于各类谈判中。 它同样存在于组织管理中,组织领导通过施加心理定格影响,能够使组织成员更好地理解和回应自己的组织。 事实上,这是一项成功领导者必备的技能。 但是,它又是一项教科书上所没有的技能。


根据Fairhurst和Sarr(1996),心理定格包含三个要素:

  1. 语言
  2. 思想
  3. 先见

语言帮助我们记忆信息,并将其转化为我们能够理解的状态。 在运用语言的时候,人们必然要去思考,要在自己既定的心理定格下去翻译、转换语言信息。 领导者在一定情境下,能够自然地学习、掌握心理定格。 这一能力是与领导人对于未来的预见性(即心理定格会产生什么影响)紧密联系在一起的。 换句话说,领导人必须要有计划性,从而才能使得心理定格影响挥发自如。


心理定格技术(Fairhurst、Sarr, 1996)

  1. 比喻。 通过把主意、计划比作其他事项,使其产生新的意义。
  2. 故事(神话、传说)。 通过讲述栩栩如生的故事,产生心理定格影响。
  3. 传统(礼仪、礼节、典礼)。 按照一定的时间规律,重复开展特定形式内容的组织活动,从而确认、强化组织价值。
  4. 口号、行话及标语。 通过这些共同的组织语言,构建一种亲密的、难忘的组织氛围。
  5. 人造物品。 通过人造的具体物件,展现组织价值。 语言也有发挥不了作用的时候。
  6. 对照。 用否定的方式来描述一个主题,即“如果非此,又会怎样”。
  7. 旋转。 在阐述某一概念的时候,将其积极的和消极的内涵结合起来。

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心理定格论坛。


Founders of "Framing theory"?
In 1982 the book ReFraming (NLP - Neuro-Lingvistic Programming) was published by Richard Bandler and John Grinder. (...)
10
 
Framing by TV Journalists
Am I the only one who is getting sick of long, suggestive introductions and short, framing questions by journalists and (...)
8
 
1条评论
Valence-consistent Shift in Attribute Framing
One of the contributions of Levin to the theory of framing is the distinction between three types of framing: attribute (...)
3
 
Reframing Organizations
Reframing organizations is a new concept and and research is ongoing.. Bolman and Deal 1991 Reframing Organizations is o (...)
3
 
Framing in Social Media
This technique must be a winner when using social media.
In short, the creative marketer can carry his / her messag (...)
2
 
8条评论
Framing, Reframing and Gestalt Theory
Framing is of the essence in communication, generally.
And also in change theory as reframing the dominant paradigm (...)
1
 
Framing was Preceded by Theory of Bounded Rationality by Herbert Simon
Herbert Simon first introduced the concept "bounded rationality". Simon suggested that rational economic behavior is lim (...)
1
 
Terrorism Framing
The book "Framing Terrorism: The News Media, The Government and The Public", is an in-depth analysis of how interpretati (...)
0
 

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Nobel Price Economic Sciences Daniel Kahneman
In 2002, Daniel Kahneman of Priceton University was awarded the Nobel Price in Economic Sciences for having integrated i (...)
15
 
1条评论

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关于Framing(英语)的高级见解。在这里,您将找到专家的专业建议。


Three Different Types of Framing and Their Effects

Framing, Communication, Advertising
According to Levin et al. (1998), there are 3 different types of framing effects. These three types of Framing effects d (...)

How to Deliver a Business Pitch?

Storytelling, Corporate Pitch, Pitching an Idea, Entrepreneurship, Assessing Pitches, Showrunners, Artists, Neophytes, E
How do you deliver a very good pitch for some business idea or venture you want to sell? Kimberly D. Elsbach, who has a (...)

Social Persuasion: Determining the Potential of Social Influencers

Social Media Marketing, Social Influence, Opinion Leadership
Which consumers are best able to influence others in social groups? What characteristics and what factors identify those (...)

Framing Example: Martin Luther King: I have a dream...

Framing Example
Martin Luther King, Jr's "I have a dream" speech is an excellent example of Framing. The speech largely shaped the civi (...)
信息来源

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有关心理定格的各种信息来源。在这里,您将找到Powerpoint,视频,新闻等可用于您自己的讲座和讲习班。


Nobel Price Kahneman

Nobel lecture by Kahneman
Lecture by Kahneman in which he tells about his work done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (19371996) during a long a (...)

Mediation as Framing

Mediation, Dispute Intervention
In this paper Barbara Gray explores two connections between mediation and framing. First, mediators use framing as a tec (...)

Framing Approaches

Negotiation, Media
While researchers have demonstrated that frames have profound effects on conflict and negotiation processes and outcomes (...)

Heuristics and Biases

Negotiation
In this essay, Russell B. Korobkin and Chris Guthrie examine the role of heuristics in negotiation from two vantage poin (...)

Framing in the Context of Conflicts

Framing, Negotiation, Collective Bargaining, Stakeholder Analysis, Force Field Analysis, Conflict Management
Framing and conflicts This presentation elaborates on the extent to which framing relates to conflicts (and its resolut (...)

Heuristics as Biases (defects) or Heuristics as Intelligence (beneficial)?

Heuristics, Biases, Framing
Presentation that mainly is about Heuristics as Biases and Heuristics as Intelligence, including the following sections: (...)

Epistemological Analysis

Framing Overview
The goal of this paper by Michael Hoffmann is to define framing as a basic form of knowledge. Starting point is a discus (...)

40 Proven Ways to Be Persuasive

Persuasion Techniques, Persuasion Theory
Interesting presentation that describes 50 scientifically proven ways to be persuasive. 1. Six Universal Principles of (...)

Introduction Into Propaganda as Persuasion Technique

Propaganda, Advertising, Persuasion
This presentation gives an introduction into Propaganda as a Persuasive Technique. The presentation includes various pos (...)

Agenda Setting and Framing by Media

Agenda Setting, Framing, Mass Media Influences
Presentation about Agenda Setting and Framing by M. Ersoy. The presentation starts with explaining agenda setting by out (...)

The Power of Analogies

Reasoning, Problem Solving
The presentation starts with a comparison of well-defined and ill-defined problems, and after a slide about general prob (...)

Framing Diagram

Focusing Attention
Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in (...)

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