Framing (Tversky)

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What is Framing? Description

Framing examples

Using Framing techniques, we can focus the attention of people within a field of a meaning. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman should be seen as the founders of Framing theory, although Fairhurst and Sarr actually coined the term.

Unlike the central concept of the rational choice theory (people always strive to make the most rational choices possible), Framing theory suggests that how something is presented (the "frame"), influences the choices which people make.

Frames are abstract notions that serve to organize or structure social meanings. Frames influence the perception of the news by the audience. This form of agenda-setting not only tells what to think about an issue (agenda-setting theory), but also how to think about that issue.

Framing is a quality of communication that leads others to accept one meaning over another. It is the process by which a communication source can define and can construct a political issue or public controversy.

Understanding Framing is an important topic since it can have a big influence on the content of the thoughts of people. Try to test the examples on the right to see if you can withstand Framing...

Framing does not have to be a bad thing, and it is in fact an unavoidable part of human communication. We find it in the media as events are presented within a field of meaning. We find it in politics as politicians attempt to characterize events as one thing or another; we find it in religion, and we find it in negotiating when one side tries to move another towards a desired outcome. Finally it can also be used by leaders of organizations with profound effects on how organizational members understand and respond to the world in which they live. It is a skill that most successful leaders possess. It is a skill that is not often taught.

According to Fairhurst & Sarr (1996) Framing consists of three elements:

  1. Language
  2. Thought
  3. Forethought

Language helps us to remember information and serves to transform the way in which we view situations. To use language, people must have thought and reflected on their own interpretation frameworks and those of others. Leaders can and should learn Framing spontaneously in certain circumstances. Being able to do so, is related to having an insight in what the future will bring to predict Framing opportunities. In other words, leaders must make plans so that they can be spontaneous.

Framing Techniques (Fairhurst and Sarr, 1996)

  1. Metaphor. To give a new meaning to an idea or to a program by comparing it with something else.
  2. Stories (myths and legends). Framing a subject by telling an anecdote in a vivid and memorable way.
  3. Traditions (rites, rituals and ceremonies). Patterning and defining an organization at regular time increments to confirm and reproduce organizational values.
  4. Slogans, jargon and catchphrases. Framing a subject in a memorable and familiar fashion.
  5. Artifacts. Illuminating corporate values through physical objects (vestiges). Sometimes in a way language can not do.
  6. Contrast. To describe a subject in terms of what it not is.
  7. Spin. Talking about a concept so as to give it a positive or negative connotation.

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Forum discussions about Framing. Below you can ask a question about this topic, share your experiences, report a new development, or explain something.

topic Founders of "Framing theory"?
In 1982 the book ReFraming (NLP - Neuro-Lingvistic Programming) was published by Richard Bandler and John Grinder....
topic Framing by TV Journalists
Am I the only one who is getting sick of long, suggestive introductions and short, framing questions by journalists and media? In particular TV 'journalists' are extremely annoying, even from 'reputab...
Comments1 comments
🔥 Valence-consistent Shift in Attribute Framing
One of the contributions of Levin to the theory of framing is the distinction between three types of framing: attribute framing, goal framing and risky choice framing (Levin et al. 1998) (explanation ...
topic Reframing Organizations
Reframing organizations is a new concept and and research is ongoing.. Bolman and Deal 1991 Reframing Organizations is one of the source of reframing....
topic Framing in Social Media
This technique must be a winner when using social media. In short, the creative marketer can carry his / her message into the hearts of people who want to live fast and informed......
Comments8 comments
topic Framing, Reframing and Gestalt Theory
Framing is of the essence in communication, generally. And also in change theory as reframing the dominant paradigm is an element of the Unfreezing phase. A classic example of Reframing is Tom Sawyer...
topic Framing was Preceded by Theory of Bounded Rationality by Herbert Simon
Herbert Simon first introduced the concept "bounded rationality". Simon suggested that rational economic behavior is limited by the cognitive quality of man....
topic Terrorism Framing
The book "Framing Terrorism: The News Media, The Government and The Public", is an in-depth analysis of how interpretative frames of terrorism have been created and how they are reinforced by the medi...

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Best Practices

The best, top-rated topics about Framing. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.

🥇 Nobel Price Economic Sciences Daniel Kahneman
In 2002, Daniel Kahneman of Priceton University was awarded the Nobel Price in Economic Sciences for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning...
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Expert Tips

Advanced insights about Framing. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Three Different Types of Framing and Their Effects

Framing, Communication, Advertising
According to Levin et al. (1998), there are 3 different types of framing effects. These three types of Framing effects d...

Social Persuasion: Determining the Potential of Social Influencers

Social Media Marketing, Social Influence, Opinion Leadership
Which consumers are best able to influence others in social groups? What characteristics and what factors identify those...

Framing Example: Martin Luther King: I have a dream...

Framing Example
Martin Luther King, Jr's "I have a dream" speech is an excellent example of Framing. The speech largely shaped the civi...
Information Sources

Various sources of information regarding Framing. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


Nobel Price Kahneman

Nobel lecture by Kahneman
Lecture by Kahneman in which he tells about his work done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (19371996) during a long a...

Mediation as Framing

Mediation, Dispute Intervention
In this paper Barbara Gray explores two connections between mediation and framing. First, mediators use framing as a tec...

Framing Approaches

Negotiation, Media
While researchers have demonstrated that frames have profound effects on conflict and negotiation processes and outcomes...

Heuristics and Biases

In this essay, Russell B. Korobkin and Chris Guthrie examine the role of heuristics in negotiation from two vantage poin...

Framing in the Context of Conflicts

Framing, Negotiation, Collective Bargaining, Stakeholder Analysis, Force Field Analysis, Conflict Management
Framing and conflicts This presentation elaborates on the extent to which framing relates to conflicts (and its resolut...

Heuristics as Biases (defects) or Heuristics as Intelligence (beneficial)?

Heuristics, Biases, Framing
Presentation that mainly is about Heuristics as Biases and Heuristics as Intelligence, including the following sections:...

Epistemological Analysis

Framing Overview
The goal of this paper by Michael Hoffmann is to define framing as a basic form of knowledge. Starting point is a discus...

40 Proven Ways to Be Persuasive

Persuasion Techniques, Persuasion Theory
Interesting presentation that describes 50 scientifically proven ways to be persuasive. 1. Six Universal Principles of ...

Introduction Into Propaganda as Persuasion Technique

Propaganda, Advertising, Persuasion
This presentation gives an introduction into Propaganda as a Persuasive Technique. The presentation includes various pos...

Agenda Setting and Framing by Media

Agenda Setting, Framing, Mass Media Influences
Presentation about Agenda Setting and Framing by M. Ersoy. The presentation starts with explaining agenda setting by out...

The Power of Analogies

Reasoning, Problem Solving
The presentation starts with a comparison of well-defined and ill-defined problems, and after a slide about general prob...

Framing Diagram

Focusing Attention
Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in ...

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