Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]
(Tuckman)

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总结
Tuckman Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]

什么是团队发展阶段? 释义

Bruce Tuckman的团队发展阶段(Stages of Team Development)模型可以被用来辨识团队构建与发展的关键性因素,

并对团队的历史发展给以解释。 团队发展的五个阶段是: 组建期(Forming)、激荡期(Storming)、规范期(Norming)、执行期(Performing)和休整期(Adjourning)。 (休整期是在1977年后加入的。) 根据Tuckman,所有五个阶段都是必须的、不可逾越的,团队在成长、迎接挑战、处理问题、发现方案、规划、处置结果等一系列经历过程中必然要经过上述五个阶段。
 

团队发展阶段的起源。 历史

1965年,Bruce Tuckman 1938 -)发表了一篇短文,题为《小型团队的发展序列》(Developmental Sequence in Small Groups)。 1977年,他在1965年提出的四阶段中加入第五阶段: 休整期。 该模型对后来的组织发展理论产生了深远的影响,部分原因也许是它的分期比较押韵吧。


团队发展阶段的运用。 应用

  • 组建、发展团队。
  • 分析团队行为。

团队发展阶段。 流程

  1. 组建期。 项目小组启蒙阶段。
    • 项目团队酝酿,形成测试。 测试的目的是为了辨识团队的人际边界以及任务边界。 通过测试,建立起团队成员的相互关系、团队成员与团队领导之间的关系,以及各项团队标准等。
    • 团队成员行为具有相当大的独立性。 尽管他们有可能被促动,但普遍而言,这一时期他们缺乏团队目的、活动的相关信息。 部分团队成员还有可能表现出不稳定、忧虑的特征。
    • 团队领导在带领团队的过程中,要确保团队成员之间建立起一种互信的工作关系。 指挥或“告知”式领导。 与团队成员分享团队发展阶段的概念,达成共识。
  2. 激荡期。 形成各种观念,激烈竞争、碰撞的局面。
    • 项目团队获取团队发展的信心,但是存在人际冲突、分化的问题。
    • 团队成员面对其他成员的观点、见解,更想要展现个人性格特征。 对于团队目标、期望、角色以及责任的不满和挫折感被表露出来。
    • 项目领导指引项目团队度过激荡转型期。 教练式领导。 强调团队成员的差异,相互包容。
  3. 规范期。 规则,价值,行为,方法,工具均已建立。
    • 项目团队效能提高,团队开始形成自己的身份识别。
    • 团队成员调适自己的行为,以使得团队发展更加自然、流畅。 有意识地解决问题,实现组织和谐。 动机水平增加。
    • 团队领导允许团队有更大的自治性。 参与式领导。
  4. 执行期。 人际结构成为执行任务活动的工具, 团队角色更为灵活和功能化,团队能量积聚于一体。
    • 项目团队运作如一个整体。 工作顺利、高效完成,没有任何冲突,不需要外部监督。
    • 团队成员对于任务层面的工作职责有清晰的理解。 没有监督,自治,即便在没有监督的情况下自己也能做出决策。 随处可见“我能做”的积极工作态度。 互助协作。
    • 项目领导让团队自己执行必要的决策。 委任式领导。
  5. 休整期。 任务完成,团队解散。
    • 项目团队。 有些学者将第五阶段描述为“哀痛期”,反映了团队成员的一种失落感。
    • 团队成员动机水平下降,关于团队未来的不确定性开始回升。
    • 项目领导: 为了形成新的发展阶段,有必要介绍关于新项目的好点子。 分离式领导。

团队发展阶段的优势。 优点

  • 为团队发展提供阶段指导。

团队发展阶段的局限。 缺点

  • 该模型是用来描述小型团队的。
  • 实际上,团队发展轨迹不一定象Tuckman的描述是线形的,而有可能是循环式的。
  • 该模型描述的阶段特征并不可靠,因为它主要考量的是人的行为,而当团队从一个阶段跨向另一个阶段的时候,团队成员的行为特征变化并不明显。 它们也很有可能会发生交叠。
  • 模型没有考虑到团队成员的个人角色特征。 比较: Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]
  • 在阶段发展跨越上没有给出时间框架指导。 这是一个主客观相结合的模型。

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