# Total Shareholder Return

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 Summary

### What is Total Shareholder Return? Description

Total Shareholder Return (TSR) represents the change in capital value of a listed/quoted company over a period (typically 1 year or longer), plus dividends, expressed as a plus or minus percentage of the opening value.

### Calculation of Total Shareholder Return. Formula

(Share Price at the end of the period - Share Price at the beginning of the period + Dividends) / Share Price at the beginning of the period = Total Shareholder Return.

Note: dividends include not only regular dividend payments, but also include any cash payments to shareholders, and also include special or one-time dividends, and also include share buybacks.

TSR can be easily compared from company to company, and benchmarked against industry or market returns, without having to worry about a bias regarding size. Because Total Shareholder Return is a percentage.

### Limitations of Total Shareholder Return

As a result of its nature, TSR can not be calculated at divisional level (Strategic Business Unit) and below. And also as a result of its nature, TSR can not be observed for privately held companies.

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 🔥 NEW Core Operating Shareholder Return (COSR) Total Shareholder Return (TSR) is a measure that is meant to be used by (potential) INVESTORS (shareholders) to quickly see how much value (for them) was generated by a public company over some period... 8   3 comments
 Dividends in Total Shareholder Return Should in the formula "dividends" be read as "dividends per share at the beginning of the period" or with "dividends per share at the end of the period" to eliminate the ambiguity? Before possibly im... 4   2 comments
 Formula and Example of TSR Calculation Suppose a stock has a share value at the beginning of a year of €250. At the end of the year the share is worth €295. During the year the company also pays a €5 dividend per share. The company does no... 3
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