Management by Objectives[目标管理]。 SMART[SMART管理法]
(Drucker)

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为员工制定具体工作目标,并以既定目标激励引导员工。 Peter Drucker的Management by Objectives[目标管理]及 (‘54)。 SMART[SMART管理法]解析。

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彼得Drucker - Management by Objectives[目标管理]什么是目标管理? 释义

目标管理(Management by Objectives)就是为每一名员工制定具体的目标任务,并以这些既定的目标去激励、引导、比较员工的工作绩效。 目标管理的目的是,将组织整体目标逐级转化位下属单位和个人的子目标,形成一个完整的目标考评体系,以此来提高组织绩效。 最理想的情况是,由于组织的重视与投入,每一名员工都非常清楚自己的工作目标、任务周期等与之工作紧密相关的内容。
目标管理包括持续跟踪生产运营流程并不断提供反馈意见,直至实现目标。


Peter Drucker

目标管理由管理学大师Peter Drucker提出,首先出现于他的著作《管理实践》(The Practice of Management)一书中,该书于1954年出版。 根据Drucker的说法,管理人员一定要避免“活动陷阱”(Activity Trap),不能只顾低头拉车,而不抬头看路,最终忘了自己的主要目标。 MBO的一个重要概念是企业战略规划不能仅有几个高管来执行,所有管理人员都应该参与进来,这将更有利于战略的执行。 另一个相关概念是,企业要设计有一个完整的绩效系统,它将帮助企业实现高效运作。 由此,可以将目标管理视为Value Based Management[价值管理]的前身。


目标管理原则

  • 组织目标任务要向下细分转化。

  • 要为每一名组织成员制定具体的目标。

  • 所有管理人员参与决策。

  • 要有明确的时间范围。

  • 对绩效进行评估,并提供反馈。

目标管理中有一项SMART法,用以判断目标的有效性。具体解析如下:

  • 具体的(Specific

  • 可测的(Measurable

  • 可完成的(Achievable

  • 现实的(Realistic

  • 有时间维度的(Time-related

1990年代,Peter Drucker在阐释目标管理的意义和重要性时说: “它仅仅是一个管理工具, 绝不是治疗管理疾病的灵丹妙药。 目标管理只有当你真正知道自己的目标时,才会发挥作用。不幸的是,90%的情况下,你并不知道自己的目标是什么。”


目标管理 / SMART管理法论坛
  目标管理的层次问题
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  参与的管理层越多,是否会增加内耗
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  Great Book on Management by Objectives
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  Is Management By Objectives Transferable to the Care Sector?
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  Mitigating the Disadvantages of Management By Objectives
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  Objectivity in the Measuring / Evaluating Objectives
Drucker introduced a very pertinent concept in man...
     
 
  Management By Objectives in Public Management
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  What Consequences if Top Executive don't do what they Promised
Can somebody give exemples or hints of what kind o...
     
 
  Management by Planning Should Replace Management by Objectives
2 of the most respected men in management theory, ...
     
 
  Mutual Commitment is the Basis of Management by Objectives
The idea of Peter Drucker on management by objecti...
     
 
  Procedure on Developing Objectives and Monitoring
I am in urgent need of subject procedure and willi...
     
 
  Management by Initiatives!
To my personal considerations, MBO has had its day...
     
 
  Mission Statements and Management by Objectives
Many organisations have a mission statement that t...
     
 
  Does Management by Objectives Work in a Church?
I find a lot of problems in church as a pure non p...
     
 
  Circumstances for Management By Objectives?
MBO is applicable in the right situation / circums...
     
 
  Turning the Objectives into Actions
Drucker rightly identified the need for strategy a...
     
 
  How to Implement Management By Objectives?
How should one implement management by objectives?...
     
 
  Management By Objectives Examples
Can anyone give some examples of organizations usi...
     
 
  Management by Objectives and Clear Objectives
MBO gives clear direction to an employee what he i...
     
 
  SMART is Always Smart...
This is called you define your objectives... Thoug...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Management by Objectives, SMART 高级帐户
 

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Organization

MBO has many benefits for the various parties conc...
Usage (application)Benefits of MBO at Firm Level
 
 
 

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Employee

MBO has many benefits for the various parties conc...
Usage (application)Benefits of MBO for Employees
 
 
 

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Manager

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Usage (application)Benefits of MBO for Managers
 
 
 

Guidelines for Managing by Objectives

W. A. Danny developed 10 rules for MBO systems to ...
Usage (application)Implementing Management by Objectives, Best Practices
 
 
 

How Management By Objectives Establishes Buy-In, Commitment and Engagement

The most critical obstacles in managing is none ot...
Usage (application)Employee Participation
 
 
 

Other Versions of SMART Method: SMARTIE

We often use 2 extra terms in SMART and then call ...
Usage (application)MBO
 
 
 

Best Practices to Better Target Setting

In most organizations it is very common to specify...
Usage (application)Management by Objectives, SMART, Business Performance Management, Balanced Scorecard, KPIs, CSFs
 
 
 

Management by Dynamic Objectives (MBDO)

Normally MBO works with a particular time frame in...
Usage (application)Implementing a Flexible MBO System
 
 
 

Managing Intelligent People

Remember it's best to tell clever people WHAT you ...
Usage (application)People Management
 
 
 

Fairness of Managers and Leaders: are Fair Leaders More Effective?

In many studies the relationship between fairness ...
Usage (application)Management, Leadership, HR, Performance Appraisals
 
 

相关资料 - 目标管理 / SMART管理法 高级帐户
 

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比较: CSFs和KPIs[关键成功因子和关键绩效指标]  |  Scientific Management[科学管理]  |  Value Based Management[价值管理]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  RACI[RACI模型]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Result Oriented Management[业绩导向管理]  |  Hoshin Kanri[方针管理] - Policy Deployment[政策展开]


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