Management by Objectives[目标管理]。 SMART[SMART管理法]



为员工制定具体工作目标,并以既定目标激励引导员工。 Peter Drucker的Management by Objectives[目标管理]及 (‘54)。 SMART[SMART管理法]解析。



彼得Drucker - Management by Objectives[目标管理]什么是目标管理? 释义

目标管理(Management by Objectives)就是为每一名员工制定具体的目标任务,并以这些既定的目标去激励、引导、比较员工的工作绩效。 目标管理的目的是,将组织整体目标逐级转化位下属单位和个人的子目标,形成一个完整的目标考评体系,以此来提高组织绩效。 最理想的情况是,由于组织的重视与投入,每一名员工都非常清楚自己的工作目标、任务周期等与之工作紧密相关的内容。

Peter Drucker

目标管理由管理学大师Peter Drucker提出,首先出现于他的著作《管理实践》(The Practice of Management)一书中,该书于1954年出版。 根据Drucker的说法,管理人员一定要避免“活动陷阱”(Activity Trap),不能只顾低头拉车,而不抬头看路,最终忘了自己的主要目标。 MBO的一个重要概念是企业战略规划不能仅有几个高管来执行,所有管理人员都应该参与进来,这将更有利于战略的执行。 另一个相关概念是,企业要设计有一个完整的绩效系统,它将帮助企业实现高效运作。 由此,可以将目标管理视为Value Based Management[价值管理]的前身。


  • 组织目标任务要向下细分转化。

  • 要为每一名组织成员制定具体的目标。

  • 所有管理人员参与决策。

  • 要有明确的时间范围。

  • 对绩效进行评估,并提供反馈。


  • 具体的(Specific

  • 可测的(Measurable

  • 可完成的(Achievable

  • 现实的(Realistic

  • 有时间维度的(Time-related

1990年代,Peter Drucker在阐释目标管理的意义和重要性时说: “它仅仅是一个管理工具, 绝不是治疗管理疾病的灵丹妙药。 目标管理只有当你真正知道自己的目标时,才会发挥作用。不幸的是,90%的情况下,你并不知道自己的目标是什么。”

目标管理 / SMART管理法 小组

小组 (23名成员)

目标管理 / SMART管理法论坛  


1、目标管理来源于目标体系的设计 2、目标体系包括:企业组织层面的战略目标(分阶段的战役目标)、具体业...
  Management By Objectives in Public Management
How to introduce Management By Objectives (MBO) in public organizations? Who can share some experiences? Thanks......
  Objectivity in the Measuring / Evaluating Objectives
Drucker introduced a very pertinent concept in management which - if effectively implemented - brings about noticeable improvements in organization.
  Management By Objectives Examples
Can anyone give some examples of organizations using MBO successfuly today?...
  Turning the Objectives into Actions
Drucker rightly identified the need for strategy and objectives, but did not pursue how to turn the objectives into actions. We have....
  Management by Objectives vs. Control Self Assessment
In the principle of Management By Objective, MBO, just like Facilitated Team Workshop in Control Self Assessment, CSA, points out the importance of in...
  Mitigating the Disadvantages of Management By Objectives
How can we deal with the disadvantages of MBO?...
  Setting SMART Objectives
What would be the best SMART objectives to set for the first-line manager, who just started on the job in the retail industry in the current economic...
  Management by Objectives and Clear Objectives
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  Management by Initiatives!
To my personal considerations, MBO has had its day. It's time to add a new dimension to this 'age old' management style which reminds me of macho-mana...
  Is Management By Objectives Transferable to the Care Sector?
I'm currently working in care as a team leader and I'm looking for a good way to manage staff. Any suggestions/experiences on whether or not MBO is t...
  Great Book on Management by Objectives
A great book I wrote to learn about Management by Objectives is " 
  Management by Objectives Needs Tracking and Feedback
I would like to dedicate my opinion on MBO. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the...
  SMART is Always Smart...
This is called you define your objectives... Though the implementation is tough.. The results are far from your imagination... Thats how they say... "...
  Does Management by Objectives Work in a Church?
I find a lot of problems in church as a pure non profit organization. There is no a clear vision. There are not measurable objectives.
How can I ...
  Mission Statements and Management by Objectives
Many organisations have a mission statement that tries to encapsulate the overall strategic management of their company.
Such statements are desi...
  Circumstances for Management By Objectives?
MBO is applicable in the right situation / circumstances only: in small and middle business scale. My experience is not really good when I was CEO for...

最佳实践 - 目标管理 / SMART管理法
  Reference of SMART Goals
Does anyone know the reference for SMART goals? I checked in Peter Druckers book: The practice of management and did not find it. Is really Pete...
  The Essence of Management by Objectives (MBO)
MBO somewhat resembles farming, each animal or plant is allowed to individually produce a product. The farmer is there to give guidance, to control an...
  Disadvantages of Management by Objectives?
I'm trying to build a complete list of all disadvantages of Management by Objectives:
1. May lead to suboptimalization: people or d...
  SMART Management Works!
A very nice article. Organizations transcend from good to great because people use SMART goals as foundation for every day work and strive every day t...
  What Consequences if Top Executive don't do what they Promised
Can somebody give exemples or hints of what kind of consequences the CEO of a company could take if his executive team repetively doesn't deliver what...
  Mutual Commitment is the Basis of Management by Objectives
The idea of Peter Drucker on management by objectives is based on the integration of different hierarchical levels of the company. The common point is...
  Procedure on Developing Objectives and Monitoring
I am in urgent need of subject procedure and willing to pay. I.e. what's the procedure on writing SMART objectives and monitoring through scorecards....
  Management by Planning Should Replace Management by Objectives
2 of the most respected men in management theory, Drucker and Deming, disagreed over MBO. Deming proposed that ...
  Achievable vs. Realistic
I don`t see much difference between the terms "Achievable" and "Realistic", I`d rather say "Results-oriented" or "Results-directed"....
  How to Implement Management By Objectives?
How should one implement management by objectives?...

Expert Tips (ENG) - Management by Objectives, SMART

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Organization

Benefits of MBO at Firm Level
MBO has many benefits for the various parties concerned.
Some benefits of MBO for the organi...

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Employee

Benefits of MBO for Employees
MBO has many benefits for the various parties concerned.
Some benefits of MBO for the employ...

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Manager

Benefits of MBO for Managers
MBO has many benefits for the various parties concerned.
Some benefits of MBO for the manage...

Guidelines for Managing by Objectives

Implementing Management by Objectives, Best Practices
W. A. Danny developed 10 rules for MBO systems to be effective:
1. The boss must be devoted to ...

How Management By Objectives Establishes Buy-In, Commitment and Engagement

Employee Participation
The most critical obstacles in managing is none other than the buy-in or commitment of...

Other Versions of SMART Method: SMARTIE

We often use 2 extra terms in SMART and then call it SMARTIE:
- Inspiring
- Enthousiasm.

Best Practices to Better Target Setting

Management by Objectives, SMART, Business Performance Management, Balanced Scorecard, KPIs, CSFs
In most organizations it is very common to specify organizational targets with the aim of increasing...

Management by Dynamic Objectives (MBDO)

Implementing a Flexible MBO System
Normally MBO works with a particular time frame in mind. Over that period, various kinds of objectiv...

Managing Intelligent People

People Management
Remember it's best to tell clever people WHAT you want, not HOW to do it...
You will find these...

Fairness of Managers and Leaders: are Fair Leaders More Effective?

Management, Leadership, HR, Performance Appraisals
In many studies the relationship between fairness and effective leadership is studied. Managers and ...

相关资料 - 目标管理 / SMART管理法

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简报关于目标 Drucker


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比较: CSFs和KPIs[关键成功因子和关键绩效指标]  |  Scientific Management[科学管理]  |  Value Based Management[价值管理]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  RACI[RACI模型]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Result Oriented Management[业绩导向管理]  |  Hoshin Kanri[方针管理] - Policy Deployment[政策展开]

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