Management by Objectives[目标管理]。 SMART[SMART管理法]
(Drucker)

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为员工制定具体工作目标,并以既定目标激励引导员工。 Peter Drucker的Management by Objectives[目标管理]及 (‘54)。 SMART[SMART管理法]解析。

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彼得Drucker - Management by Objectives[目标管理]什么是目标管理? 释义

目标管理(Management by Objectives)就是为每一名员工制定具体的目标任务,并以这些既定的目标去激励、引导、比较员工的工作绩效。 目标管理的目的是,将组织整体目标逐级转化位下属单位和个人的子目标,形成一个完整的目标考评体系,以此来提高组织绩效。 最理想的情况是,由于组织的重视与投入,每一名员工都非常清楚自己的工作目标、任务周期等与之工作紧密相关的内容。
目标管理包括持续跟踪生产运营流程并不断提供反馈意见,直至实现目标。


Peter Drucker

目标管理由管理学大师Peter Drucker提出,首先出现于他的著作《管理实践》(The Practice of Management)一书中,该书于1954年出版。 根据Drucker的说法,管理人员一定要避免“活动陷阱”(Activity Trap),不能只顾低头拉车,而不抬头看路,最终忘了自己的主要目标。 MBO的一个重要概念是企业战略规划不能仅有几个高管来执行,所有管理人员都应该参与进来,这将更有利于战略的执行。 另一个相关概念是,企业要设计有一个完整的绩效系统,它将帮助企业实现高效运作。 由此,可以将目标管理视为Value Based Management[价值管理]的前身。


目标管理原则

  • 组织目标任务要向下细分转化。

  • 要为每一名组织成员制定具体的目标。

  • 所有管理人员参与决策。

  • 要有明确的时间范围。

  • 对绩效进行评估,并提供反馈。

目标管理中有一项SMART法,用以判断目标的有效性。具体解析如下:

  • 具体的(Specific

  • 可测的(Measurable

  • 可完成的(Achievable

  • 现实的(Realistic

  • 有时间维度的(Time-related

1990年代,Peter Drucker在阐释目标管理的意义和重要性时说: “它仅仅是一个管理工具, 绝不是治疗管理疾病的灵丹妙药。 目标管理只有当你真正知道自己的目标时,才会发挥作用。不幸的是,90%的情况下,你并不知道自己的目标是什么。”


目标管理 / SMART管理法 小组


小组 (23名成员)


目标管理 / SMART管理法论坛  

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最佳实践 - 目标管理 / SMART管理法
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管理资讯一站式平台


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Expert Tips (ENG) - Management by Objectives, SMART
 

Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Organization

 
 
 

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Advantages of Management by Objectives for the Manager

 
 
 

Guidelines for Managing by Objectives

 
 
 

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Other Versions of SMART Method: SMARTIE

 
 
 

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Management by Dynamic Objectives (MBDO)

 
 
 

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