Six Sigma[六西格玛]

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开发、提供臻于完美的产品和服务。 Six Sigma[六西格玛]解析。

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什么是六西格玛? 释义

六西格玛是一项质量管理法,是企业改进生产流程、提高产品/服务质量的一项有效工具, 它能够降低企业流程差异、提升企业绩效,从而帮助企业提高产品质量、增加盈利、提升员工士气。 六西格玛法是由摩托罗拉公司的Mikel Harry开发的,并率先于摩托罗拉公司推广运用。 六西格玛法聚焦于企业的流程控制,严格将标准偏差值控制在六西格玛之内,即每一百万件产品中只有3.4件次品。 该方法还包括辨认顾客对于关键产品质量的认识和需求。 它通过减少流程偏差、提高生产性能、保持生产稳定性以及改进设计系统,来实现六西格玛目标。


六西格玛既是一个非常严格的质量目标,也是一项非常高效的质量管理手段,最终帮助企业生产和提供臻于完美的产品与服务。 六西格玛法的发明,得益于美国籍籍罗马利亚质量管理大师Joseph Juran所做出的大量统计性工作。 希腊字母“西格玛”(σ)在统计学上被用来测量一个流程与标准状态的偏离程度(标准偏差)。 西格玛数值越大,说明流程约接近于完美。 所以,当西格玛为1时, 则说明流程不是很好; 六西格玛,即西格玛值为6时,每百万单位只有3.4个次品,则说明流程接近完美。 六西格玛所反映的管理思想是,只要能够准确找出生产流程中的“次品”,就能够系统地把它们从流程中排除掉。 从而就能够实现“零次品”。

当你听说六西格“黑腰带”之类头衔的话,是不是感觉到有些日本味道? 是的,如果你是个刚入门的六西格玛培训生,你就会像日本的柔道新手一样得到一条绿腰带,简称“绿带”(Green Belt)。 一个六西格玛团队负责人,通常要有一条黑腰带,简称“黑带”(Black Belt)。 还有一些更为专业的人士,负责督导和管理黑带,他们被称之为“黑带大师”(Master Black Belt)。

 

Six Sigma[六西格玛] 6 Σ

六西格玛法的步骤。 流程

一般,六西格玛法包括以下5个步骤:

  1. 定义。 任何六西格玛项目的第一步都是找出和阐析质量问题,将问题控制在一个可以量度的有限范围内,从而使得最后能够在数月内实现既定的量度目标。 据此,形成六西格玛团队,对整个流程进行详细检查,提出改进建议,然后进行改正。 如果是个制造业项目,六西格玛项目经理会与项目所有者一道从定义次品成分入手,然后设立一系列降低次品发生的目标。
  2. 测量。 六西格玛团队收集流程资料,为下一步深入分析做准备。
  3. 分析。 一旦整个流程已为六西格玛团队所掌握,质量问题已为大量的实物证据所证明,六西格玛团队则开始对所掌握的数据材料进行分析。 六西格玛团队一般从分析这两个问题入手:找出生产人员为什么未能按照要求进行生产的原因;找出每一个流程阶段未能实施有效控制的原因。
  4. 改进。 建议,决策,改进提高。
  5. 控制。 作为最后一步,六西格玛团队设计控制机制, 帮助企业保持改进后的状态,并实现不断提高。

六西格玛论坛
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比较: Kaizen[改善]  |  Deming Cycle[戴明循环]  |  Scientific Management[科学管理]  |  8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]  |  Value Chain[价值链]  |  Just-in-time[即时生产]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Value Engineering[价值工程]  |  Hoshin Kanri[方针管理] - Policy Deployment[政策展开]


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