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Vad är Sex Sigma? Beskrivning

Sex Sigma är en kvalitetsledningsmetodologi som förser företag med verktyg för att förbättra kapaciteten i deras affärsprocesser. Denna ökning i prestation och minskning i processvariationer leder till defekt minskning och förbättring av vinster, anställdas moral och kvaliteten på produkten. Detta är ett kvalitetsmått och förbättringsprogram som uppfanns av Mikel Harry och Motorola. Den fokuserar på kontrollen av en process tills den punkt då sex sigma (standardavviker) från en mittlinje eller 3.4 defekter per miljon objekt. Detta inkluderar identifierbara faktorer som är kritiska för kvaliteten som beslutats av kunden. Den minskar på processvariationer- och förbättrar kapaciteter, förhöjer stabilitet och designsystem för att stötta målet med sex sigma.



Sex Sigma-metodologi 6 ΣSex Sigma modellen är ett mycket disciplinerat tillvägagångssätt som kan hjälpa företag att fokusera på att utveckla och att leverera nästan perfekta produkter och tjänster. Den baseras på det statistiska arbetet av Joseph Juran, en rumänskt-född och amerikansk-banbrytare av kvalitetsledning. Uttrycket ”Sigma” är en grekisk symbol använt för en statistisk term som mäter hur långt en given process avviker från perfektion (standardavvikelse). Om sigma numret är större närmar du dig perfektion. En sigma av 1 är inte tillräckligt bra; sex sigma definieras som endast 3.4 defekter per miljon. Den centrala idén bakom Sex Sigma är att, om du kan mäta hur många ”defekter” du har i en process, kan du systematiskt räkna ut hur du kan avlägsna dem. Således kan du nästan komma fram till en ”nolltolerans av fel”.

Det japanska ursprunget till Sex Sigma kan fortfarande ses som systemet med olika ”bälten” som det använder. Om du är ny inför Sex Sigma, och du går på en grundläggande träning, då får du ett grönt bälte. Någon, som har ansvaret för att leda ett Six Sigma lag, kallas svart bältare. Slutligen så finns det en speciell elit som kallas "Master Black"gruppen som leder och hanterar de med svarta bälten.


De Fem stegen i Sex Sigma. Process

En typisk Sex Sigma process har följande fem steg:

  1. Definition. Det första steget i alla Six Sigma projekt är att klargöra problemet och att begränsa dess omfattning på ett sådant sätt att mätbara mål kan uppnås inom ett fåtal månader. Därefter samlas ett lag för att undersöka processen mer specifikt, föreslå förbättringar och genomföra dessa rekommendationer. I den tillverkande världen brukar projektchefer och deras sponsorer typiskt börja med att definiera vad som utgör en defekt och upprättar därefter en uppsättning av målsättningar som skapas för att minska risken för att defekter skulle uppstå igen.
  2. Mätning. I det andra steget av ett Sex Sigma projekt samlar laget in data och förbereder den för en analys på hög nivå.
  3. Analys. Så fort en process har kartlagts och dokumenterats och kvaliteten på de understödjande och tillförlitliga datat har verifierats, kan Sex Sigma laget påbörja analysen. Lagmedlemmarna startar vanligtvis genom att identifiera de sätt där personer har misslyckats agera på det sätt som egentligen behövdes, eller genom att identifiera på vilket sätt  som personer misslyckas för att tillse att man uppnår en effektfull kontroll i varje steg.
  4. Förbättring. Rekommendera, avgör och genomföra förbättringar.
  5. Kontrollera. I slutskedet av ett Six Sigma projekt  skapar laget kontroller. Dessa möjliggör för företaget att bibehålla och fördjupa förbättringarna.

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