La Metodologia Six Sigma | Il Processo di Six Sigma | Il Modello di Six Sigma

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Che cosa è il Six Sigma? Descrizione

Il Six Sigma è una metodologia di quality management che fornisce ai business strumenti per migliorare la capacità dei loro processi di business. L'aumento delle performance e la diminuzione della variazione dei processi hanno condotto ad una riduzione dei difetti e ad un miglioramento dei profitti, del morale degli impiegati e della qualità del prodotto. È una misura della qualità e un programma di miglioramento a cui ha aperto la strada Mikel Harry e Motorola. Si basa  sul controllo di un processo fino al punto dei six sigma (scarti quadratici medi) da una linea centrale, o su 3.4 difetti per un milione di articoli. Include l'identificazione di fattori critici per la qualità, determinati dal cliente. Riduce la variazione dei processi e le capacità di miglioramento, aumenta la stabilità ed i sistemi di design per supportare l'obiettivo dei six sigma.


Il modello di Six Sigma è un metodo altamente disciplinato che può aiutare le aziende a focalizzarsi sullo sviluppo e sulla fornitura di prodotti e servizi quasi perfetti. È basato sul lavoro statistico di Joseph Juran, un pioniere statunitense del quality management originario della Romania. La parola “Sigma„ è un lettera greca usata per un termine statistico che misura quanto un dato processo devia dalla perfezione (scarto quadratico medio). Se il numero dei sigma è più alto, si è più vicini alla perfezione. Un sigma non è molto buono; sei sigma definiscono soltanto 3.4 difetti su un milione. L'idea di fondo del Six Sigma è che, se potete misurare i vostri “difetti„ presenti nel processo, potete calcolare sistematicamente come eliminarli. Così potete quasi “azzerare i difetti„.

L'origine giapponese del Six Sigma può ancora essere vista dal sistema delle “Cinture„ che utilizza. Se siete novizi del Six Sigma ed andate ad un corso di formazione base, otterrete una cintura verde. Chiunque abbia la responsabilità di condurre un team di Six Sigma è denominato cintura nera. Infine c'è uno speciale gruppo d'elite denominato Master Black Belts [Maestri delle Cinture Nere] che ha la funzione di sorvegliare le Cinture Nere.

 

Six Sigma 6 Σ

Cinque fasi del Six Sigma. Processo

Tipicamente, un processo di Six Sigma ha le seguenti cinque fasi:

  1. Definizione. La prima fase di qualsiasi progetto di Six Sigma è quella di chiarire il problema e limitare lo scopo in modo tale da realizzare obiettivi misurabili nel giro di alcuni mesi. Dopodichè, si assembla un team per esaminare dettagliatamente il processo, per suggerire miglioramenti e per implementare questi suggerimenti. Nel mondo della produzione, i manager di progetto ed i loro garanti cominciano tipicamente definendo cosa costituisce un difetto per poi stabilire un insieme di obiettivi destinati a ridurre l'occorrenza di tali difetti.
  2. Misurazione. Alla seconda fase di un progetto di Six Sigma, il team riunisce i dati e li prepara per un'analisi di alto livello.
  3. Analisi. Una volta che si è tracciato e documentato un processo ed è stata verificata la qualità dei dati di supporto, il team di Six Sigma può cominciare l'analisi. I membri del team cominciano solitamente dall'identificazione dei modi in cui la gente non riesce ad agire come è necessario, o dei modi in cui la gente non riesce ad assicurare un controllo efficace in ogni fase.
  4. Miglioramento. Suggerire, decidere e implementare i miglioramenti.
  5. Controllo. Nella fase finale di un progetto di Six Sigma, il team crea i controlli. Questi permettono all'azienda di sostenere ed estendere i miglioramenti.

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