Tre Nivåer av Organisatorisk Kultur | Tre Kulturnivåer i Organisationen
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Edgard Scheins Tre Kulturnivåer som definierar organisationskultur Kulturer omger oss alla. Kulturer är inrotade, genomgripande och komplexa.


Enligt Edgard Schein kan vi inte ännu helt förstå Organisatoriskt lärande, utveckling och planerad förändring om vi inte betraktar kulturen som den primära källan till motstånd vid förändring.

Dessutom om inte chefer blir medvetna om de kulturer som de omges av, så kommer dessa kulturer att styra dem. Kulturell förståelse är önskvärd av alla, men det är nödvändigt för ledare om de är satta att leda en organisation.


Med Edgard Scheins tre Kulturnivåer har han givitt ett viktigt bidrag till definition om vad organisatorisk kultur faktiskt är.


Vad är de tre kulturnivåerna? Beskrivning

Schein delar in organisatorisk kultur i tre nivåer:

  1. Artefakter/Kulturföremål. Dessa ”artefakter” är på ytan, synliga organisatoriska strukturer och processer de aspekter (liksom kläder) som kan lätt urskiljas, men är svåra att ha en uppfattning om.
  2. Sammanhörande/Anslutande värderingar. Under kulturföremål är ”sammanhörande värderingar” de vilka som är medvetna strategier, mål och filosofier.
  3. Grundläggande antaganden och värderingar. Kärnan eller essensen, av kultur representeras av de grundläggande bakomliggande antagandena och värderingarna, som är svåra att urskilja, därför att de finns i en så hög nivå av omedvetandegrad. Och ännu erbjuder de nyckeln till förståelsen av varför saker sker på ett speciellt sätt. Dessa grundläggande antaganden bildas runt om djupare dimensioner av mänsklig förekomst liksom människors natur, personliga relationer och aktivitet, verklighet och sanning.

I hans klassiska bok från år 1992: ”Organizational Culture och leadeship”, definierar Schein kulturen hos en grupp: ”Ett mönster av delade grundläggande antaganden att gruppen lär under tiden som den löser dess problem med yttre anpassning och intern integration, det har fungerat väl nog för att betraktas som giltig och därför, för att undervisas till nya medlemmar som det korrekta sättet att uppfatta, tänka och känna i förhållande till de problemen”.


I en nyare publikation från år 1996 definierar Schein organisatorisk kultur som: ”de grundläggande dolda antagandena om hur världen är och borde vara att en grupp av personer delar och bestämmer deras uppfattningar, tankar, känslor, och deras offentliga beteende”.


Schein (1992) bekräftar att - även med en rigorösa studie -  kan vi endast göra beskrivningar på delar av kulturen. Vi kan inte förklara kulturen i dess helhet. Schein rekommenderar följande angreppssätt för att fråga om kultur: iterativt, kliniskt, nästan samma som ett terapeutiskt förhållande mellan en psykolog och en patient. Det disciplinerade angreppssättet från Schein till kulturen står i stark kontrast till de sätt som kultur behandlats i några av de populära managementtidskrifterna.
 

Bok: Edgard Schein - Organizational Culture and Leadership


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Jämför Tre Kulturnivåer med:   Kontingenttheori Vroom  |  Förändringsledningens Isberg  |  Kulturtyper  |  Förändring av Organisationskulturer  |  Förändringsfaser  |  Kraftfältsanalys  |  Kärngruppsteorin Kleiner  |  Tystnadens Spiral Noelle-Neumann  |  Grupptänkande  |  Teori om Planerat Beteende  |  Kunskapshantering, Kunskapsledning Collison och Parcell  |  Organisatoriskt Minne Walsh Ungson  |  Organisatoriskt Lärande Argyris och Schön  |  Ledarskapets Övergångsmodell Tannenbaum och Schmidt  |  Kulturell Intelligens (Early)  |  Glömma, Låna och Lära Ramverk


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