3 Levels of Culture (Уровни культуры)
(Schein)

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Levels of Culture (Уровни культуры) Edgard Schein 3 определяя организационное культуру Культуры окружают всех нас. Культуры влиятельны, повсеместны и комплексны.


Согласно Edgard Schein, мы не можем понять организационное обучение, развитие и запланированное изменение, если не будем рассматривать культуру как главный источник сопротивления изменениям.

Более того, если менеджеры не будут принимать во внимание культуры, в которых они находятся, то эти культуры будут управлять ими. Культурное понимание желательно для каждого, но оно абсолютно необходимо для лидеров, если они стремятся преуспеть.


С помощью концепции 3 Levels of Culture (Уровния культуры), Edgard Schein сделал важный вклад в определение организационной культуры.


Каковы 3 Уровни культуры? Описание

Schein разделяет организационную культуру на 3 уровня:

  1. Артефакты (Artifacts). Эти «артефакты» на поверхности, те аспекты (например, одежда), которые можно легко различить, но не так просто понять.
  2. Поддерживающие ценности (Aspoused values). Под артефактами находятся «поддерживающие ценности», которые представляют собой сознательные стратегии, цели и философии.
  3. Основные предположения и ценности (Basic assumptions and values). Центр, или суть, культуры представлен основными предположениями и ценностями, которые трудно различить, так как они существуют скорее на бессознательном уровне. Тем не менее, они дают ключ к пониманию того, почему вещи происходят определенным образом. Эти основные предположения формируются вокруг более глубоких параметров человеческого существования, таких как человеческая сущность, человеческие отношения и деятельность, реальность и истина.

В своей классической книге 1992г. : «Organizational Culture and Leadership», Schein определяет культуру группы: «Закономерность общих основных предположений, приобретенная группой в процессе разрешения проблем внешней адаптации и внутренней интеграции, которая достаточно эффективно сработала, чтобы считаться действенной, и поэтому преподносится новым членам как надлежащий способ восприятий, мыслей и чувтств в отношении этих проблем».


В одном из последних изданий 1996г. Schein определяет организационную культуру как: «основные неочевидные предположения о том, каков мир и каким он должен быть в восприятии группы людей, которые определяют их восприятия, мысли, чувства и их открытое поведение».


Schein (1992) подтверждает что - даже с точным исследованием - мы можем только отметить элементы культуры. Мы не можем объяснить культуру полносьтю. Schein рекомендует следующий подход к исследованию культуры: итеративный, клинический, подобный терапевтическому отношению между психологом и пациентом. Дисциплинированный подход Schein к культуре расходится с тем, как культура освещается в некоторых популярных журналах по менеджменту.
 

Книга: Edgard Schein - Organizational Culture and Leadership


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Сравните с 3 Levels of Culture (Уровни культуры):  Contingency Theory (Теория обстоятельств)  |  Change Management Iceberg (Айсберг управления изменениями)  |  Culture Types (Культурные типы)  |  Changing Organization Cultures (Изменение организационных культур)  |  Change Phases (Фазы перемен)  |  Force Field Analysis (Анализ силового поля)  |  Core Group Theory (Теория центральной группы)  |  Spiral of Silence (Спираль молчания)  |  Groupthink (Групповое мышление)  |  Planned Behavior (Запланированное поведение)  |  Knowledge Management (Управление знаниями) (Collison & Parcell)  |  Organizational Memory (Организационная память)  |  Organizational Learning (Организационное обучение)  |  Leadership Continuum (Континуум лидерства)  |  Cultural Intelligence (Культурный интеллект)  |  Forget Borrow Learn (Забыть, занять, выучить)


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