Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]
(Levitt)

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行业成熟阶段分析。 Levitt、Fox、Wasson、Hofer、Anderson、Zeithaml、Hill及Jones等人的Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]理论解析。 (‘65)

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产品生命周期(PLC)模型可以帮助分析产品以及行业的成熟阶段。


1965年,Theodore Levitt 在《哈佛商业评论》(43卷,81-94页)上的经典之作—— 《开发产品生命周期》(Exploit the Product Life Cycle),首次提出了产品生命周期的概念。 任何公司都在通过最大化产品和服务的销售收入,来探寻未来现金流持续增长的方式, 因为,现金流是一个生存能力、投资能力以及人力资源活力的保证。 所有这些努力最终都落在了占有额外市场份额、谋取行业领袖地位上。

对于企业长期投资来说,持续稳定的现金流至关重要,那么,最好的保持现金流稳定的办法就是要有一个或多个金牛。 所谓金牛,就是在成熟市场上,占据了大量市场份额的强势产品。


现代市场环境下,PLC变得越来越短。 许多企业通过产品差异化、市场细分化战略,使得成熟产品获得新生。 企业日益关注PLC的成本与回报,不断对其进行评估,因为产品可资利用的销售时间和回收投资成本的时间,正在逐渐收缩。

虽然PLC缩短了,但是许多产品的使用寿命却被延长了。 例如,一些耐用品如汽车、家庭日用品的使用寿命较之过去大大地变长了。 所以,当企业还在规划他们的产品时,就应该将产品的市场生命周期和使用寿命周期同时纳入考虑范畴。 现在,越来越多的企业已经开始从产品生命周期出发,考虑如何进一步优化产品的营收和利润, 商品保质期、成品配件以及产品的更新能力等也因此越发受到企业的关注和重视。

Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]产业成熟阶段毋庸置疑,PLC概念对企业的经营战略、绩效表现有着重要影响。 PLC理论指出了产品生命周期有4个阶段, 从产品问世到退出市场,这4个阶段对产品销售有着不同影响。


产品生命周期的四个阶段

  • 引入阶段(Introduction Stage。 产品投入市场,并通过集中的、剧烈的市场活动,建立清晰的产品识别身份、促进最大化的公众认知。 试用、购买促进活动也发生在这一阶段。
  • 成长阶段(Growth Stage。 当销售不断增加、市场出现竞争者时,产品便进入成长阶段。 从卖方角度来看,成长阶段的另一个特点是持续的市场促进活动。 从顾客角度来看,重复购买也是成长阶段的一个特点。
  • 成熟阶段(Maturity Stage。 成熟阶段的一个标志是,由于竞争的加剧,部分竞争者开始推出市场。 同时,销售增长速度急剧下降,销售额达到一个平稳水平。 此时,购买产品的主要是典型的忠诚顾客。
  • 衰退阶段(Decline Stage。 由于此前的市场竞争、不利的经济条件、不断出现的新产品和替代品,产品从而进入了衰退阶段。

除了上述4阶段产品生命周期模型外,另有一些其他版本的产品生命周期、行业生命周期(ILC),亦被用来解释产品、市场和行业的发展。 它们非常相似,但在周期阶段的划分上略有不同, 如下。
 

生命周期模型的变异

1973年: Fox : 前商品化阶段 - 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。
1974年: Wasson : 市场发展阶段 - 快速成长阶段 - 竞争动荡阶段 - 饱和/成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1984年: Anderson & Zeithaml : 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1998年: Hill & Jones : 孕育阶段 - 成长阶段 - 震荡阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。


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