Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]
(Levitt)

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总结

产品生命周期(PLC)模型可以帮助分析产品以及行业的成熟阶段。


1965年,Theodore Levitt 在《哈佛商业评论》(43卷,81-94页)上的经典之作—— 《开发产品生命周期》(Exploit the Product Life Cycle),首次提出了产品生命周期的概念。 任何公司都在通过最大化产品和服务的销售收入,来探寻未来现金流持续增长的方式, 因为,现金流是一个生存能力、投资能力以及人力资源活力的保证。 所有这些努力最终都落在了占有额外市场份额、谋取行业领袖地位上。

对于企业长期投资来说,持续稳定的现金流至关重要,那么,最好的保持现金流稳定的办法就是要有一个或多个金牛。 所谓金牛,就是在成熟市场上,占据了大量市场份额的强势产品。


现代市场环境下,PLC变得越来越短。 许多企业通过产品差异化、市场细分化战略,使得成熟产品获得新生。 企业日益关注PLC的成本与回报,不断对其进行评估,因为产品可资利用的销售时间和回收投资成本的时间,正在逐渐收缩。

虽然PLC缩短了,但是许多产品的使用寿命却被延长了。 例如,一些耐用品如汽车、家庭日用品的使用寿命较之过去大大地变长了。 所以,当企业还在规划他们的产品时,就应该将产品的市场生命周期和使用寿命周期同时纳入考虑范畴。 现在,越来越多的企业已经开始从产品生命周期出发,考虑如何进一步优化产品的营收和利润, 商品保质期、成品配件以及产品的更新能力等也因此越发受到企业的关注和重视。

Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]产业成熟阶段毋庸置疑,PLC概念对企业的经营战略、绩效表现有着重要影响。 PLC理论指出了产品生命周期有4个阶段, 从产品问世到退出市场,这4个阶段对产品销售有着不同影响。


产品生命周期的四个阶段

  • 引入阶段(Introduction Stage。 产品投入市场,并通过集中的、剧烈的市场活动,建立清晰的产品识别身份、促进最大化的公众认知。 试用、购买促进活动也发生在这一阶段。
  • 成长阶段(Growth Stage。 当销售不断增加、市场出现竞争者时,产品便进入成长阶段。 从卖方角度来看,成长阶段的另一个特点是持续的市场促进活动。 从顾客角度来看,重复购买也是成长阶段的一个特点。
  • 成熟阶段(Maturity Stage。 成熟阶段的一个标志是,由于竞争的加剧,部分竞争者开始推出市场。 同时,销售增长速度急剧下降,销售额达到一个平稳水平。 此时,购买产品的主要是典型的忠诚顾客。
  • 衰退阶段(Decline Stage。 由于此前的市场竞争、不利的经济条件、不断出现的新产品和替代品,产品从而进入了衰退阶段。

除了上述4阶段产品生命周期模型外,另有一些其他版本的产品生命周期、行业生命周期(ILC),亦被用来解释产品、市场和行业的发展。 它们非常相似,但在周期阶段的划分上略有不同, 如下。
 

生命周期模型的变异

1973年: Fox : 前商品化阶段 - 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。
1974年: Wasson : 市场发展阶段 - 快速成长阶段 - 竞争动荡阶段 - 饱和/成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1984年: Anderson & Zeithaml : 引入阶段 - 成长阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。

1998年: Hill & Jones : 孕育阶段 - 成长阶段 - 震荡阶段 - 成熟阶段 - 衰退阶段。


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Product Life Cycle versus Ansoff Model
Can the relationship of Ansoff and the Product Life Cycle model be summarised as follows?
- Product Development - I (...)
29
 
2条评论
The Marketing Strategy to Pursue at Various Stages of the PLC
The PLC curve is divided into 4 stages: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline.
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The Impact of Short Term Investing / Financing on New Product Development
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I am currently carrying out an investigation on the impact of short term financing and short term capital (...)
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4条评论
Comparing the Product Life Cycle and the BCG Matrix
We can map or plot the product life cycle stages to the BCG matrix quadrants as follows:
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Product Life Cycle (PLC) and Food Standards
Dear all,
I am looking for information about the potential relationship between the PLC and food standards. In part (...)
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3条评论
How to Avoid the Decline Stage of the PLC?
Understanding the phases of the product life cycle, are there ways of preventing these products from reaching the declin (...)
4
 
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When is a product successful?
When can a product be considered to be successful in the light of the Product Life Cycle Theory? (...)
30
 
3条评论

The Product Life Cycle is not always Shaped like a Wave Form!
The wave form is not carved in stone. Sometimes a product (or service) that is already in its Maturity or even Decline p (...)
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专家提示

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关于Product Life Cycle(英语)的高级见解。在这里,您将找到专家的专业建议。


Why PLC is not Done at the Company Level

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Market Leader Strategies in the GROWTH Stage of the PLC

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Don't Make this Frequently Made Mistake in PLC Management!

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Typical Product Characteristics and Changes during PLC

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Marketing Strategies in INTRODUCTION Stage of PLC

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Framework for Decline Phase of the PLC

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Critics of the PLC Concept During the Years

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Organizational Life Cycle

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Challenges of the PLC for Manufacturing & Distribution

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How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

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Innovation Pitfalls

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How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

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In his book Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products, Robert Cooper suggests following ten way (...)

Marketing Strategies in the DECLINE Stage of the PLC

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When a business has its product or service in the decline stage, the following strategies can be used: 1. Profitable su (...)

Follower Marketing Strategies in the GROWTH Stage of the PLC

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A company that is characterized as a FOLLOWER in the market should aim at building a market share by winning over some o (...)

Buyer Types and their Behaviours Depending on PLC Stage

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It is important to understand that different kinds of people will buy a product in different development stages. And eve (...)

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through User Involvement Early in the Life Cycle

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Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the (...)

The Time Scale of a PLC Must Match the Product

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Too many times the plot is shown in a general mode - but for real products the plot MUST place numbers on the time axis. (...)

Limitations of PLC in FMCG

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PLCs do Not Exist in Reality

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有关产品生命周期的各种信息来源。在这里,您将找到Powerpoint,视频,新闻等可用于您自己的讲座和讲习班。


Dominant Designs

Product Life Cycle
Paper by Johann Peter Murmann and Koen Frenken. The concept of a dominant design has taken on a quasi-paradigmatic statu (...)

The Importance of the Product Life Cycle

PLC Trainings, Workshops
Adam Kaufman explains the critical importance of understanding the Product Life Cycle PLC of your products in your indus (...)

Product Life Cycle (PLC) versus Bass Diffusion

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Presentation about the Product Life Cycle model thereby making a comparison with the Bass Diffusion Model. It includes t (...)

Product Life Cycle Diagram

Product Management
Download and edit the 12manage PowerPoint model for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in int (...)

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比较: Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]  |  ADL Matrix[ADL矩阵]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  GE Matrix[GE矩阵]  |  Innovation Adoption Curve[创新采用曲线]  |  STRATPORT[STRATPORT模型]  |  Profit Pools[利润池]  |  Marketing Mix[营销组合]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]


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