Product Life Cycle
(Levitt)

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概要

Product Life Cycleモデルはプロダクトおよび企業の製品成熟段階の分析を助けることができる。


言葉はHarvard Business Reviewの記事で1965年にセオドアLevittによってはじめて使用された: 「Exploit the Product Life Cycle」 (Vol. 43、1965年、PP 11月12月81-94)。 どの会社でも絶えずプロダクトおよびサービスの販売からの最大になる収入による未来の現金流動を育てる方法を追求している。 現金流動は会社が実行可能性を維持し、新製品の開発に投資し、労働力を向上することを可能にする。 すべて付加的な市場占有率を得、それぞれの企業のリーダーになるこれ。

プロダクト販売からの一定した、支持できる現金流動(収入)の流れはあらゆる長期投資に主であり、安定した収入の道を成し遂げる最もよい方法に1つ以上Cash Cowsがあるためにである。 Cash Cowsは成長した市場の大きい市場占有率を達成した強いプロダクトである。


また、現代Product Life Cycleはより短く、より短くなっている。 成長した企業の多くのプロダクトは製品差別化および市場細分化によって生き返らせられる。 組織はますます空き時間がプロダクトを販売し、投資を回復するために縮まるので、product life cycleの費用および収入を再査定する。

product life cycleが縮まるが、多くのプロダクトの作動の生命は延びている。 例えば、ある耐久財の作動の生命は、自動車および電気器具のような、大幅に増加した。 その結果、これらのプロダクトを生産する会社は計画しているとき彼らの市場生命および耐用年数を注意して取らなければならない。 ますます、会社は全体のライフサイクル上の収入そして利益を最大限に活用するように試みている。 彼らはプロダクト保証、予備品および機能の考察によってこれを既存のプロダクトを改善するする。

Product Life Cycleの企業の製品成熟段階それはProduct Life Cycleの概念に経営策および企業業績に重大な影響があること明らかである。 Product Life Cycle方法はプロダクトの販売に影響を与える明瞭な段階を識別する。 退職までのプロダクトの開始から。


Product Life Cycleの段階

  • 導入段階。 プロダクトは明らかなアイデンティティを確立し、最高意識を促進するように設計されている集中され、強い売込みによる市場で導入される。 多くの試験または衝動買いはこの段階に起こる。
  • 成長の段階。 競争相手の販売そして出現を高めることによって確認することができる。 売り手の側面で、成長の段階はまた支えられたマーケティングの活動によって特徴付けられる。 何人かの顧客は繰り返しの購入をする。
  • 製品成熟段階。 この段階は時市場を残し始めている競争相手確認することができる。 また、販売の速度は劇的に減り、売上高は安定したレベルに達する。 この時点で時間に、普通忠節な顧客はプロダクトを購入する。
  • 低下段階。 競争、好ましくない経済情勢、新しい傾向、等の長引く効果は頻繁に、販売の低下を説明する。

Industry Life Cycleモデルの複数の変化はプロダクト、市場、および/または企業の開発を扱うために開発された。 モデルが類似しているが、段階の数そして名前に関して異なる。 ある主要なモデルのリストはここにある:
 

ライフサイクルの変化は模倣する

1973年: Fox: precommercialization -導入-成長-成熟度-低下。
1974年: Wasson: 市場開発-急成長-競争の乱れ-飽和か成熟度-低下

1984年: アンダーソン及びZeithaml: 導入-成長-成熟度-低下

1998年: Hillおよびジョーンズ: 萌芽期の-成長- shakeout -成熟度-低下


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Product Life Cycleをと比較した: Bass Diffusion model  |  Stage-Gate  |  ADL Matrix  |  BCG Matrix  |  Relative Value of Growth  |  Positioning  |  GE  |  Innovation Adoption Curve  |  STRATPORT  |  Profit Pools  |  marketing mix  |  4 Trajectories of Industry Change  |  Co-Creation  |  Disruptive Innovation


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