Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]
(C.K. Prahalad)

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缓解世界贫困, 不再视贫困群体为受害者或社会负担。 C.K. Prahalad的Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]解析。 (‘02, ‘05)

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Bottom of the Pyramid[金字塔底层]

什么是金字塔底层(Bottom of the Pyramid)? 释义

(经济)金字塔的底层,代表着40亿每日收入不足2美元的庞大人口群体。 在过去的50多年里,世界银行、捐赠国、各种国际援助机构、各个国家的中央政府,以及稍后加入的民间社团组织都想尽办法要消灭贫困,但无一达到目标。


意识到这一令人沮丧的事实,C.K. Prahalad在他的著作 《金字塔底层的财富》(The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid)里提出了一项非常简单却极其革命性的主张: 不要再把贫困群体看作受害者或社会负担,而要把他们视为有活力、有创造力的企业家和有价值的消费者,一个崭新的机会之门就将打开。

Prahalad认为,四十亿贫困人口将是下一轮全球贸易和繁荣的发动机,将是无穷无尽的创新之源。 服务金字塔底层的消费者,需要大公司与民间社团组织、地方政府的通力协作。 此外,金字塔底层市场的发展也将孕育成千上万个草根企业。
 

Prahalad将自己的这一消除贫困主张称之为“共同创造(Co-Creation)”的解决方案,即经济发展的同时实现社会变革。卷入这一共同创造过程的各方力量将包括:

  • 私人企业
  • 发展和援助机构
  • 金字塔底层消费者
  • 金字塔底层企业家
  • 民间社团组织和地方政府

金字塔底层市场创新12原则

Prahalad为服务[金字塔底层市场提出了以下12项原则:

  1. 关注(突破)价格表现。
  2. 杂交解决方案,将新老技术混合于一体。
  3. 发展可量度、可传输的商业运营模式,且要能跨越国界、文化和语言。
  4. 弱化资源强度, 开发生态友好的产品。
  5. 对于不适合的产品要从根本上进行重新设计, 对现有西方社会的产品只做边边角角的改动显然不适应金字塔底层市场的需求。
  6. 在物流和生产两个方面加大基础设施投入和建设
  7. 加强去技术化(服务)工作。
  8. 教育(半文盲)顾客如何使用产品。
  9. 开发高性能产品,即便在不良环境下也能正常工作, 如噪音大、灰层多、不卫生、滥用、电力中断、水污染,等等。
  10. 产品要具备可调用户界面,以适应多样异质的消费群体。
  11. 设计分销方案时,要同时考虑到极度分散的边远地区市场和高度稠密的城市市场。
  12. 优选宽广架构,便于快速便捷地融入新特征。

金字塔底层的起源。 历史

Prahalad在出版他的2005年专著之前, 就消除贫困的技术架构问题发表过两篇文章:

  • 2002年1月: 与Stu Hart合写、发表在《战略+商业》上的《金字塔底层的财富》(The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid)
  • 2002年9月: 与Allen Hammond合写、发表在《哈佛商业评论》上的《服务世界贫困人口,有利可图的事业》(Serve the World's Poor,Profitable)

金字塔底层的运用 应用

  • 这一架构为私营企业者提供了推动力,促使他们为金字塔底层构建市场生态系统,帮助其实现转型。
  • 帮助人们重新思考、改变长期持有的信仰理念、假想设定和意识形态。
  • 以金字塔底层消费者为目标,提供产品(服务)开发的线索。

金字塔底层思想的优势。 优点

这一思想方法最有力的地方在于,帮助人们重新思考和改变那些长期持有的信仰理念、假想设定和意识形态,所有这些无不建立在以贫困群体为受害者、为社会负担的旧有思想基础上。

  • 金字塔底层有利可图, 它是一个切实可行的市场。
  • 金字塔底层市场无进入性问题, 非传统方法如雅芳女士(Avon Ladies)或许更为有效。
  • 金字塔底层消费者同样有很强的品牌意识。
  • 金字塔底层市场已被连接(手机、电视、互联网)。
  • 金字塔底层消费者对先进技术怀有开放心态。

金字塔底层理论的假设。 条件

  1. 如果私营部门不积极参与,如果全球质量标准的产品和服务不对贫困群体敞开大门的话,贫困群体就不可能融入全球化的进程,也不可能分享全球化的丰收果实。
  2. 金字塔底层市场为私营部门提供了一个新的成长机会,为创新进步提供了一个新的交流论坛, 旧经验老办法在金字塔底层市场上行不通。
  3. 金字塔底层必将成为私营部门的主要市场和核心业务, 金字塔底层市场不会仅仅停留在企业社会责任的研究领域里。

参考书: C.K. Prahalad - The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Profits [中译本《金字塔底层的财富:在40多亿穷人的市场中发掘商机并根除贫困》,中国人民大学出版社,2004] -


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