Value Chain Framework
(Porter)

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总结

Michael Porter的Value Chain Framework[价值链架构]是一项用来分析与价值创造和竞争优势培育相关联的各项企业活动的管理模型。


价值链上的各项活动

  • Value Chain[价值链]架构模型主要活动(一线运营功能)
    • 进货物流Inbound Logistics)。 包括接收、入库、库存控制、运输规划等。
    • 制造运营(Operation。 包括加工、包装、组装、设备维护、测试以及其他所有将资源输入转变为产品输出的价值创造活动。
    • 出货物流(Outbound Logistics。 此项活动目的是使终端产品送抵消费者,包括 入库、订单实现、运输、分销管理,等等。
    • 市场营销(Marketing and Sales。 包括一系列促使消费者购买产品的活动: 渠道选择、广告、市场促进、销售、定价、零售管理,等等。
    • 售后服务(Service。 包括维持和提高产品价值的一系列活动: 用户支持、维修服务、安装、培训、备用件管理、升级,等等。
  • 支持活动(行政功能及其他企业运营环节)
    • 采购(Procurement。 采购物项包括原材料、服务、零备件、建筑及机器,等等。
    • 技术发展(Technology Development。 支持价值链上各项活动的技术发展, 例如: 研发、流程自动化、设计及再设计。
    • 人力资源管理(Human Resource Management。 包括招募、发展培训(教育)、人力资源保持、员工及管理人员薪酬回报,等等。
    • 企业基础建设(Firm Infrastructure。 包括企业一般管理、规划管理、质量管理、以及法律、财务、会计、公共事务等各项管理活动。

基于价值链的成本优势

企业能够通过以下两个手段产生创造成本优势:

  • 减少单项价值创造活动的成本;
  • 对价值链进行重新配置。

值得注意的是,成本优势不仅可以通过减少主要活动的成本获得,同样也可以通过减少支持活动的成本获得。 今天,已经有越来越多的公司通过使用信息技术获得成本优势。


对价值链进行定义之后,就可以通过对价值创造各项活动成本的分摊来进行成本分析。 Porter列出了10个与价值链活动紧密相关的成本动因(Cost Drivers

  1. 经济规模(Economies of Scale)。
  2. 企业学习(Learning)。
  3. 能力运用(Capacity Utilization)。
  4. 各活动之间的联结(Linkages among Activities)。
  5. 战略事业单元之间的相互关系(Interrelationships among Business Units)。
  6. 垂直一体化的程度(Degree of Vertical Integration)。
  7. 市场进入的时间(Timing of Market Entry)。
  8. 企业的成本领先或差异化政策(Firms of Policy of Cost or Differentiation)。
  9. 地理位置(Geographic Location)。
  10. 制度化因素(政策规定、工会势力、税收,等等)。

企业如果较之竞争对手更好地控制以上成本动因,就能够获得成本优势。 如前所说,企业还可以通过重组价值链来获得成本优势, 重组意味着价值链结构的变化,如: 新的生产流程、新的分销渠道、或者不同的销售方法。


通常,公司的价值链往往与其他价值链相联系,并成为一个更大的价值链的一部分。 创造企业的竞争优势,还取决于企业对这个更大的价值链的分析和管理能力。 这就是运筹学上的 供应链管理(Supply Chian Management。 有些人更认为,或许用另外一个词来描述价值链更为准确,即 价值网络(Value Networks


参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage [中译本《竞争优势》,华夏出版社,2005]


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价值链架构论坛。


🔥 价值链的应用?活动与联系?
价值链上有两类活动,即主要活动与支持活动。我能够背出这两类活动的所有构成部分,但 (...)
3
 
价值链与供应链管理?
供应链管理(SCM)与价值链管理(VCM)之间是什么关系?它们是如何相互依赖的?谢! (...)
0
 
How to Deal with Conflicts Between Marketing and Operations
Shapiro recognized several reasons for the conflicts between marketing and operations teams:
CAPACITY MANAGEMENT (...)
19
 
14条评论
Value Chain in Research and Technology
Is there anyone having practice or insight on value chain specifically for research and technology? (...)
14
 
1条评论
Value Chain in Legal Services
How can a value chain be incorporated in law firms? What are the primary and support activities in such legal services? (...)
10
 
1条评论
Is Value Chain Analyse Only A Tool??
We study the value chain framework in the marketing plan as a situation analyzing tool. Some say that this can be used a (...)
8
 
Value Chain and Competitive Advantage Report
I know that a report on value chain and competitive advantage of the Public Sector in Lebanon was performed in 1999 upon (...)
6
 
Procurement in the Value Chain Approach
For long the value chain approach by Michael Porter and as advanced by Peter Hines has placed procurement on the periphe (...)
6
 
2条评论
Developing Green Value Chains
Developing green business strategies in value chains is a new trend to maximize the competitive advantages in terms of m (...)
5
 
Combining Value Chain Analysis with Benchmarking to Analyze Competitive Advantage
How can value chain analysis and benchmarking be jointly used as tools for assessing the competitiveness of a company?
5
 
Customer Value Chain (CVC)
The customer value chain CVC is a bit similar or analogous to Michael Porter's Value Chain (The series of activities suc (...)
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Value Chain Analysis is practical
Even after all these years I find the Value Chain model of Porter still one of the better, practical tools to analyse a (...)
4
 
Order Management in Porters Value Chain?
How do I segregate and fit in order management (not order fulfillment ) in Porters list of primary processes? Does it be (...)
2
 
Value Chain vs. Credit Crunch
In spite of todays credit crunch crisis, the Value Chain model in my experience proved to be one of the most valuable t (...)
1
 
Governments Should be Considered as Value Chains for the Citizens
It's obvious that corruption, misleading and empiricism are affecting the political parties that rule many countries und (...)
1
 
Agility in Value Chain
What is the role agility is playing in Porters value chain model? (...)
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Value Chain Narrow Minded
Porters value chain is very good at explaining how a product adds value throughout the whole process starting from procu (...)
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10 Decision Areas of Operation Management (Heizer)
Heizer wrote there are 10 decision areas of operation Management:
1. Goods and Services Design, 2. Quality Manageme (...)
-3
 

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How to apply the value chain? Activities and Linkages
The value chain has two types of activities which are the primary activities and the support activities. I can remember (...)
118
 
7条评论

Value Chain Management versus Supply Chain Management?
What is the relationship between Supply Chain Management and Value Chain Management? How are they interdependent? (...)
54
 
6条评论

Value Chain model in Tourism
How does the model handle a services industry like tourism? It looks to me much of the tourism industry operates on alli (...)
45
 
Value Chain Analysis in Textile Industry
I am interested in the value chain analysis in textile industry of Uzbekistan to penetrate the EU market. I know that te (...)
38
 
Value Chains > Value Networks
In an article 'Value Creation, Coordination and Positioning in Supply Relationships' in Long Range Planning (Volume 39, (...)
33
 
1条评论

Role of Information Systems in Value Chain
How does Porter's value chain model help a business to use information systems for competitive advantage? (...)
31
 
1条评论

Comparing Value Chain and 7S Model
Hi! I am writing an assignment on a manufacturing company and used both Porter's value chain analysis and McKinsey's 7S (...)
29
 
1条评论

Value Chain for Services Industry
I have read somewhere, that this model is not applicable for services industry, is it true? And does anybody know, if po (...)
27
 
3条评论

Inventory Replenishement in Value Chain
In the context of the value chain, would inventory replenishement be a support value process or a primary value proces (...)
21
 
2条评论

Value Chain versus Diamond Model
Hi, can anyone explain in a few words what is the main difference between Porter's Diamond and Value Chain models? (...)
20
 
3条评论

Value Chains and Industries
Interestingly, different industries often emphasize different activities in the value chain. For example, retailers trad (...)
16
 
6条评论

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The Added-Value Chain Model

3 more Primary and 1 more Supporting Activity Added to Porter's Model
The Added-Value Chain model proposes to add an expanded set of activities to the original Value Chain concept by Porter. (...)

Good Value Chain Questions to Ask

Optimizing your Supply Chain
To more deeply understand your Value Chain, these are a few interesting questions you can ask yourself: - What are the (...)

Process Classification Framework

Alternative to Porter's Value Chain Analysis
A company's activities or processes classification is mostly based on subjective criteria, experience and sensitivity of (...)

Reported Benefits of Value-chain Initiaves

Value Chain Advantages
A survey by G. Taninecz Forging the Chain in Industry Week (Dec. 21, 2004) indicated the following major benefits of (...)

Implementing Added-Value Chain Model

Implementation
According to Wayne McPhee and David Wheeler in the article Making the Case for the Added-Value Chain (Strategy & Leade (...)

How to Design a Value Chain?

Supply Chain Design
Designing or improving a value chain is not easy. Here are five bullet points to get started: 1. Begin by identifying t (...)

Online Value Chain

Use of Internet / IT
In Michael Porter's view, traditional firms have a chance to profit from deploying modern IT infrastructure and upgrade (...)

10 Decision Areas of Operation Management (Heizer)

Operations Management
According to Heizer and Render, there are 10 decision areas of Operation Management (each having typical issues): 1. Go (...)

List of Major Value Chain Obstacles

Pitfalls in Implementing Value Chain Management
Although the Value Chain approach can be effective, there are major obstacles underlying application of SCM, such as: 1 (...)

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

Fundamental Innovation
When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of (...)

Remember to Focus your Improvement Efforts?

Achieve More With Less, Kaizen, BPR, JIT, Lean, Value Chain
Very often organizations consider continuous improvement as committing on improvement efforts, and thus creating project (...)

Value Networks

Value Chain versus Value Network
Today value chains have become value networks. In a lot of industries ranging from software to manufacturing the boundar (...)

Three Reasons for Dysfunctional Buyer - Supplier Relationships

Supply Chain Management, Purchasing, Alliances, Partnerships, Supply Chain Relations
Roloff, Alnder and Nayier (2015) did research on the conditions for (un)successful buyer-supplier relationships and fo (...)
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Electronic Markets

Search Costs and Boundaries
Ramesh Sankaranarayan study how electronic markets that facilitate broader inter-firm transactions affect the vertical s (...)

Connections and Competences in the Governance of the Value Chain

Value Chain Delocalisation
The aim of this paper by Giuseppe Tattara and Paolo Crestanello is to analyse the governance of value chains operating i (...)

The Role of Value Chain Functions, Quality Management and Innovation in Competitive Advantage

Value Chain Management, Quality Management, Innovation, Operational Excellence
This presentation firstly presents the role of functional strategies and the value chain in the achievement of competiti (...)

How Businesses can Use Information Technology (IT) in Strategic Ways

Strategic Management, Information Technology
This presentation looks at Information Technology from a strategic point of view. In other words, it discusses in what w (...)

Introduction to (Sustainable) Value Chain Analysis

Initial Understanding Value Chain Analysis
Value Chain Analysis involves analyzing three things to identify improvement areas / projects: 1. Material Flow - The f (...)

Location choices across the value chain

How activity and capability influence agglomeration and competition effects
There has been a recent revival of interest in the geographic component of firm strategy. Recent research suggests that (...)

Introduction Into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Enterprise Resource Planning, Supply Chain Management
This presentation provides an introduction into Enterprise Resource Planning and includes the following sections: 1. Wh (...)

Introduction to Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design
While Porters value chain is a firm-level supply chain, this presentation describes supply chain management in a global (...)

Value Chain Model Diagram

Value Chain Analysis
Download and edit the 12manage PowerPoint model for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in int (...)

Internet-based Distribution of Digital Videos

Economic Impacts of Digitizatization
Digital technologies and, especially, the Internet are profoundly reshaping the motion picture industry. Video-on-demand (...)

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比较: Porter Five Forces[五力模式]  |  Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]  |  Diamond Model[钻石模型]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Organizational Configurations[组织构型]  |  3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]  |  Outsourcing[外包]  |  Just-in-time[即时生产]  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Vertical Integration[垂直整合]  |  Horizontal Integration[横向整合]  |  Vendor Managed Inventory[供应商管理库存]  |  Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]


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